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ref Function

Constructs a reference_wrapper from an argument.

template<class Ty>
    reference_wrapper<Ty> ref(Ty& arg);
template<class Ty>
    reference_wrapper<Ty> ref(reference_wrapper<Ty>& arg);

A reference to arg; specifically, reference_wrapper<Ty>(arg).

The following example defines two functions: one bound to a string variable, the other bound to a reference of the string variable computed by a call to ref. When the value of the variable changes, the first function continues to use the old value and the second function uses the new value.

#include <algorithm>
#include <functional>
#include <iostream>
#include <iterator>
#include <ostream>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
using namespace std;
using namespace std;
using namespace std::placeholders;

bool shorter_than(const string& l, const string& r) {
    return l.size() < r.size();
}

int main() {
    vector<string> v_original;
    v_original.push_back("tiger");
    v_original.push_back("cat");
    v_original.push_back("lion");
    v_original.push_back("cougar");

    copy(v_original.begin(), v_original.end(), ostream_iterator<string>(cout, " "));
    cout << endl;

    string s("meow");

    function<bool (const string&)> f = bind(shorter_than, _1, s);
    function<bool (const string&)> f_ref = bind(shorter_than, _1, ref(s));

    vector<string> v;

    // Remove elements that are shorter than s ("meow")

    v = v_original;
    v.erase(remove_if(v.begin(), v.end(), f), v.end());

    copy(v.begin(), v.end(), ostream_iterator<string>(cout, " "));
    cout << endl;

    // Now change the value of s.
    // f_ref, which is bound to ref(s), will use the
    // new value, while f is still bound to the old value.

    s = "kitty";

    // Remove elements that are shorter than "meow" (f is bound to old value of s)

    v = v_original;
    v.erase(remove_if(v.begin(), v.end(), f), v.end());

    copy(v.begin(), v.end(), ostream_iterator<string>(cout, " "));
    cout << endl;

    // Remove elements that are shorter than "kitty" (f_ref is bound to ref(s))

    v = v_original;
    v.erase(remove_if(v.begin(), v.end(), f_ref), v.end());

    copy(v.begin(), v.end(), ostream_iterator<string>(cout, " "));
    cout << endl;
}
tiger cat lion cougar
tiger lion cougar
tiger lion cougar
tiger cougar

Header: <functional>

Namespace: std

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