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UrlEscape function

Converts characters or surrogate pairs in a URL that might be altered during transport across the Internet ("unsafe" characters) into their corresponding escape sequences. Surrogate pairs are characters between U+10000 to U+10FFFF (in UTF-32) or between DC00 to DFFF (in UTF-16).

Syntax


HRESULT UrlEscape(
  _In_     PCTSTR pszURL,
  _Out_    PTSTR pszEscaped,
  _Inout_  DWORD *pcchEscaped,
  DWORD dwFlags
);

Parameters

pszURL [in]

Type: PCTSTR

A null-terminated string of maximum length INTERNET_MAX_URL_LENGTH that contains a full or partial URL, as appropriate for the value in dwFlags.

pszEscaped [out]

Type: PTSTR

The buffer that receives the converted string, with the unsafe characters converted to their escape sequences.

pcchEscaped [in, out]

Type: DWORD*

A pointer to a DWORD value that, on entry, contains the number of characters in the pszEscaped buffer. Before calling UrlEscape, the calling application must set the value referenced by pcchEscaped to the size of the buffer. When this function returns successfully, the value receives the number of characters written to the buffer, not including the terminating NULL character.

If an E_POINTER error code is returned, the buffer was too small to hold the result, and the value referenced by pcchEscaped is set to the required number of characters in the buffer. If any other errors are returned, the value referenced by pcchEscaped is undefined.

dwFlags

Type: DWORD

The flags that indicate which portion of the URL is being provided in pszURL and which characters in that string should be converted to their escape sequences. The following flags are defined.

URL_DONT_ESCAPE_EXTRA_INFO (0x02000000)

Used only in conjunction with URL_ESCAPE_SPACES_ONLY to prevent the conversion of characters in the query (the portion of the URL following the first # or ? character encountered in the string). This flag should not be used alone, nor combined with URL_ESCAPE_SEGMENT_ONLY.

URL_BROWSER_MODE

Defined to be the same as URL_DONT_ESCAPE_EXTRA_INFO.

URL_ESCAPE_SPACES_ONLY (0x04000000)

Convert only space characters to their escape sequences, including those space characters in the query portion of the URL. Other unsafe characters are not converted to their escape sequences. This flag assumes that pszURL does not contain a full URL. It expects only the portions following the server specification.

Combine this flag with URL_DONT_ESCAPE_EXTRA_INFO to prevent the conversion of space characters in the query portion of the URL.

This flag cannot be combined with URL_ESCAPE_PERCENT or URL_ESCAPE_SEGMENT_ONLY.

URL_ESCAPE_PERCENT (0x00001000)

Convert any % character found in the segment section of the URL (that section falling between the server specification and the first # or ? character). By default, the % character is not converted to its escape sequence. Other unsafe characters in the segment are also converted normally.

Combining this flag with URL_ESCAPE_SEGMENT_ONLY includes those % characters in the query portion of the URL. However, as the URL_ESCAPE_SEGMENT_ONLY flag causes the entire string to be considered the segment, any # or ? characters are also converted.

This flag cannot be combined with URL_ESCAPE_SPACES_ONLY.

URL_ESCAPE_SEGMENT_ONLY (0x00002000)

Indicates that pszURL contains only that section of the URL following the server component but preceding the query. All unsafe characters in the string are converted. If a full URL is provided when this flag is set, all unsafe characters in the entire string are converted, including # and ? characters.

Combine this flag with URL_ESCAPE_PERCENT to include that character in the conversion.

This flag cannot be combined with URL_ESCAPE_SPACES_ONLY or URL_DONT_ESCAPE_EXTRA_INFO.

URL_ESCAPE_AS_UTF8 (0x00040000)

Windows 7 and later. Percent-encode all non-ASCII characters as their UTF-8 equivalents.

URL_ESCAPE_ASCII_URI_COMPONENT (0x00080000)

Windows 8 and later. Percent-encode all ASCII characters outside of the unreserved set from URI RFC 3986 (a-zA-Z0-9-.~_).

Return value

Type: HRESULT

Returns S_OK if successful. If the pcchEscaped buffer was too small to contain the result, E_POINTER is returned, and the value pointed to by pcchEscaped is set to the required buffer size. Otherwise, a standard error value is returned.

Remarks

For the purposes of this document, a typical URL is divided into three sections: the server, the segment, and the query. For example:

http://microsoft.com/test.asp?url=/example/abc.asp?frame=true#fragment

The server portion is "http://microsoft.com/". The trailing forward slash is considered part of the server portion.

The segment portion is any part of the path found following the server portion, but before the first # or ? character, in this case simply "test.asp".

The query portion is the remainder of the path from the first # or ? character (inclusive) to the end. In the example, it is "?url=/example/abc.asp?frame=true#fragment".

Unsafe characters are those characters that might be altered during transport across the Internet. This function converts unsafe characters into their equivalent "%xy" escape sequences. The following table shows unsafe characters and their escape sequences.

CharacterEscape Sequence
^%5E
&%26
`%60
{%7B
}%7D
|%7C
]%5D
[%5B
"%22
<%3C
>%3E
\%5C

 

Use of the URL_ESCAPE_SEGMENT_ONLY flag also causes the conversion of the # (%23), ? (%3F), and / (%2F) characters.

By default, UrlEscape ignores any text following a # or ? character. The URL_ESCAPE_SEGMENT_ONLY flag overrides this behavior by regarding the entire string as the segment. The URL_ESCAPE_SPACES_ONLY flag overrides this behavior, but only for space characters.

Examples

The following examples show the effect of the various flags on a URL. The example URL is not valid but is exaggerated for demonstration purposes.



// The full original URL
http://microsoft.com/test/t%e<s t.asp?url=/{ex% ample</abc.asp?frame=true#fr%agment    

// URL_ESCAPE_SPACES_ONLY 
// Only space characters are escaped. Other unsafe characters are ignored.
// Note: This flag expects the server portion of the URL to be omitted.
Original = test/t%e<s t.asp?url=/{ex% ample</abc.asp?frame=true#fr%agment
Result   = test/t%e<s%20t.asp?url=/{ex%%20ample</abc.asp?frame=true#fr%agment

// URL_ESCAPE_SPACES_ONLY | URL_DONT_ESCAPE_EXTRA_INFO
// Spaces in the segment are converted into their escape sequences, but
// spaces in the query are not.
Original = test/t%e<s t.asp?url=/{ex% ample</abc.asp?frame=true#fr%agment
Result   = test/t%e<s%20t.asp?url=/{ex% ample</abc.asp?frame=true#fr%agment

// URL_ESCAPE_PERCENT
// Here only the segment and query are supplied and the server component is
// omitted, although that is not required. Only the segment is considered.
// All unsafe characters plus the % character are converted in the segment.
Original = test/t%e<s t.asp?url=/{ex% ample</abc.asp?frame=true#fr%agment
Result   = test/t%25e%3Cs%20t.asp?url=/{ex% ample</abc.asp?frame=true#fr%agment

// URL_ESCAPE_SEGMENT_ONLY
// Note: This flag expects only the segment, omitting the server and query 
//       components.
// The / character is escaped as well as the usual unsafe characters.
Original = test/t%e<s t.asp
Result   = test%2Ft%e%3Cs%20t.asp

Requirements

Minimum supported client

Windows 2000 Professional, Windows XP [desktop apps only]

Minimum supported server

Windows 2000 Server [desktop apps only]

Header

Shlwapi.h

Library

Shlwapi.lib

DLL

Shlwapi.dll (version 5.0 or later)

Unicode and ANSI names

UrlEscapeW (Unicode) and UrlEscapeA (ANSI)

See also

Handling Uniform Resource Locators

 

 

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