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Action<T1, T2, T3> Delegate

Updated: February 2009

Encapsulates a method that takes three parameters and does not return a value.

Namespace:  System
Assembly:  System.Core (in System.Core.dll)

public delegate void Action<T1, T2, T3>(
	T1 arg1,
	T2 arg2,
	T3 arg3
)

Type Parameters

T1

The type of the first parameter of the method that this delegate encapsulates.

T2

The type of the second parameter of the method that this delegate encapsulates.

T3

The type of the third parameter of the method that this delegate encapsulates.

Parameters

arg1
Type: T1

The first parameter of the method that this delegate encapsulates.

arg2
Type: T2

The second parameter of the method that this delegate encapsulates.

arg3
Type: T3

The third parameter of the method that this delegate encapsulates.

You can use the Action<T1, T2, T3> delegate to pass a method as a parameter without explicitly declaring a custom delegate. The method must correspond to the method signature that is defined by this delegate. This means that the encapsulated method must have three parameters that are all passed to it by value, and it must not return a value. (In C#, the method must return void. In Visual Basic, it must be defined by the SubEnd Sub construct.) Typically, such a method is used to perform an operation.

NoteNote:

To reference a method that has three parameters and returns a value, use the generic Func<T1, T2, T3, TResult> delegate instead.

When you use the Action<T1, T2, T3> delegate, you do not have to explicitly define a delegate that encapsulates a method with three parameters. For example, the following code explicitly declares a delegate named StringCopy and assigns a reference to the CopyStrings method to its delegate instance.

using System;

delegate void StringCopy(string[] stringArray1, 
                         string[] stringArray2, 
                         int indexToStart);

public class TestDelegate
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      string[] ordinals = {"First", "Second", "Third", "Fourth", "Fifth"};
      string[] copiedOrdinals = new string[ordinals.Length];           
      StringCopy copyOperation = CopyStrings;
      copyOperation(ordinals, copiedOrdinals, 3);
      foreach (string ordinal in copiedOrdinals)
         Console.WriteLine(String.IsNullOrEmpty(ordinal) ? "<None>" : ordinal);
   }

   private static void CopyStrings(string[] source, string[] target, int startPos)
   {
      if (source.Length != target.Length) 
         throw new IndexOutOfRangeException("The source and target arrays must have the same number of elements.");

      for (int ctr = startPos; ctr <= source.Length - 1; ctr++)
         target[ctr] = String.Copy(source[ctr]);
   }

}

The following example simplifies this code by instantiating the Action<T1, T2, T3> delegate rather than explicitly defining a new delegate and assigning a named method to it.

using System;

public class TestAction3
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      string[] ordinals = {"First", "Second", "Third", "Fourth", "Fifth"};
      string[] copiedOrdinals = new string[ordinals.Length];           
      Action<string[], string[], int> copyOperation = CopyStrings;
      copyOperation(ordinals, copiedOrdinals, 3);
      foreach (string ordinal in copiedOrdinals)
         Console.WriteLine(String.IsNullOrEmpty(ordinal) ? "<None>" : ordinal);
   }

   private static void CopyStrings(string[] source, string[] target, int startPos)
   {
      if (source.Length != target.Length) 
         throw new IndexOutOfRangeException("The source and target arrays must have the same number of elements.");

      for (int ctr = startPos; ctr <= source.Length - 1; ctr++)
         target[ctr] = String.Copy(source[ctr]);
   }
}

You can also use the Action<T1, T2, T3> delegate with anonymous methods in C#, as the following example illustrates. (For an introduction to anonymous methods, see Anonymous Methods (C# Programming Guide).)

using System;

public class TestAnon
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      string[] ordinals = {"First", "Second", "Third", "Fourth", "Fifth"};
      string[] copiedOrdinals = new string[ordinals.Length];           
      Action<string[], string[], int> copyOperation = delegate(string[] s1, 
                                                               string[] s2, 
                                                               int pos) 
                                      { CopyStrings(s1, s2, pos); };
      copyOperation(ordinals, copiedOrdinals, 3);
      foreach (string ordinal in copiedOrdinals)
         Console.WriteLine(String.IsNullOrEmpty(ordinal) ? "<None>" : ordinal);
   }

   private static void CopyStrings(string[] source, string[] target, int startPos)
   {
      if (source.Length != target.Length) 
         throw new IndexOutOfRangeException("The source and target arrays must have the same number of elements.");

      for (int ctr = startPos; ctr <= source.Length - 1; ctr++)
         target[ctr] = String.Copy(source[ctr]);
   }
}

You can also assign a lambda expression to an Action<T1, T2, T3> delegate instance, as the following example illustrates. (For an introduction to lambda expressions, see Lambda Expressions (C# Programming Guide).)

using System;

public class TestLambda
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      string[] ordinals = {"First", "Second", "Third", "Fourth", "Fifth"};
      string[] copiedOrdinals = new string[ordinals.Length];           
      Action<string[], string[], int> copyOperation = (s1, s2, pos) =>
                                      CopyStrings(s1, s2, pos); 
      copyOperation(ordinals, copiedOrdinals, 3);
      foreach (string ordinal in copiedOrdinals)
         Console.WriteLine(ordinal == string.Empty ? "<None>" : ordinal);
   }

   private static void CopyStrings(string[] source, string[] target, int startPos)
   {
      if (source.Length != target.Length) 
         throw new IndexOutOfRangeException("The source and target arrays must have the same number of elements.");

      for (int ctr = startPos; ctr <= source.Length - 1; ctr++)
         target[ctr] = String.Copy(source[ctr]);
   }
}
NoteNote:

    Visual Basic requires that a lambda expression return a value. As a result, that return value must be discarded if the lambda expression is to be used with the Action<T1, T2, T3> delegate.

Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP SP2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, Windows CE, Windows Mobile for Smartphone, Windows Mobile for Pocket PC, Xbox 360, Zune

The .NET Framework and .NET Compact Framework do not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 3.5

.NET Compact Framework

Supported in: 3.5

XNA Framework

Supported in: 3.0

Date

History

Reason

February 2009

Modified the note about lambda expressions in Visual Basic, and added a Visual Basic example that uses a lambda expression.

Customer feedback.

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