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Queryable.SingleOrDefault<TSource> Method (IQueryable<TSource>, Expression<Func<TSource, Boolean>>)

Returns the only element of a sequence that satisfies a specified condition or a default value if no such element exists; this method throws an exception if more than one element satisfies the condition.

Namespace:  System.Linq
Assemblies:   System.Linq.Queryable (in System.Linq.Queryable.dll)
  System.Core (in System.Core.dll)

public static TSource SingleOrDefault<TSource>(
	this IQueryable<TSource> source,
	Expression<Func<TSource, bool>> predicate
)

Type Parameters

TSource

The type of the elements of source.

Parameters

source
Type: System.Linq.IQueryable<TSource>

An IQueryable<T> to return a single element from.

predicate
Type: System.Linq.Expressions.Expression<Func<TSource, Boolean>>

A function to test an element for a condition.

Return Value

Type: TSource
The single element of the input sequence that satisfies the condition in predicate, or default(TSource) if no such element is found.

Usage Note

In Visual Basic and C#, you can call this method as an instance method on any object of type IQueryable<TSource>. When you use instance method syntax to call this method, omit the first parameter. For more information, see Extension Methods (Visual Basic) or Extension Methods (C# Programming Guide).

ExceptionCondition
ArgumentNullException

source or predicate is null.

InvalidOperationException

More than one element satisfies the condition in predicate.

This method has at least one parameter of type Expression<TDelegate> whose type argument is one of the Func<T, TResult> types. For these parameters, you can pass in a lambda expression and it will be compiled to an Expression<TDelegate>.

The SingleOrDefault<TSource>(IQueryable<TSource>, Expression<Func<TSource, Boolean>>) method generates a MethodCallExpression that represents calling SingleOrDefault<TSource>(IQueryable<TSource>, Expression<Func<TSource, Boolean>>) itself as a constructed generic method. It then passes the MethodCallExpression to the Execute<TResult>(Expression) method of the IQueryProvider represented by the Provider property of the source parameter.

The query behavior that occurs as a result of executing an expression tree that represents calling SingleOrDefault<TSource>(IQueryable<TSource>, Expression<Func<TSource, Boolean>>) depends on the implementation of the type of the source parameter. The expected behavior is that it returns the only element in source that satisfies the condition specified by predicate, or a default value if no such element exists.

The following code example demonstrates how to use SingleOrDefault<TSource>(IQueryable<TSource>, Expression<Func<TSource, Boolean>>) to select the only element of an array that satisfies a condition. The second query demonstrates that SingleOrDefault<TSource>(IQueryable<TSource>, Expression<Func<TSource, Boolean>>) returns a default value when the sequence does not contain exactly one element that satisfies the condition.

            string[] fruits = { "apple", "banana", "mango", 
                                  "orange", "passionfruit", "grape" };

            // Get the single string in the array whose length is greater 
            // than 10, or else the default value for type string (null). 
            string fruit1 =
                fruits.AsQueryable().SingleOrDefault(fruit => fruit.Length > 10);
            Console.WriteLine("First Query: " + fruit1);

            // Get the single string in the array whose length is greater 
            // than 15, or else the default value for type string (null). 
            string fruit2 =
               fruits.AsQueryable().SingleOrDefault(fruit => fruit.Length > 15);
            Console.WriteLine("Second Query: " +
                (String.IsNullOrEmpty(fruit2) ? "No such string!" : fruit2));

            /*
                This code produces the following output:

                First Query: passionfruit
                Second Query: No such string!
            */

.NET Framework

Supported in: 4.6, 4, 3.5

.NET Framework Client Profile

Supported in: 4, 3.5 SP1

Portable Class Library

Supported in: Portable Class Library

.NET for Windows Store apps

Supported in: Windows 8

Supported in: Windows Phone 8.1

Supported in: Windows Phone Silverlight 8.1

Supported in: Windows Phone Silverlight 8

Windows Phone 8.1, Windows Phone 8, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012, Windows 7, Windows Vista SP2, Windows Server 2008 (Server Core Role not supported), Windows Server 2008 R2 (Server Core Role supported with SP1 or later; Itanium not supported)

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

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