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GROUPING_ID (Transact-SQL)

Is a function that computes the level of grouping. GROUPING_ID can be used only in the SELECT <select> list, HAVING, or ORDER BY clauses when GROUP BY is specified.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

GROUPING_ID ( <column_expression>[ ,...n ] )
<column_expression>

Is a column_expression in a GROUP BY clause.

The GROUPING_ID <column_expression> must exactly match the expression in the GROUP BY list. For example, if you are grouping by DATEPART (yyyy, <column name>), use GROUPING_ID (DATEPART (yyyy, <column name>)); or if you are grouping by <column name>, use GROUPING_ID (<column name>).

Comparing GROUPING_ID () to GROUPING ()

GROUPING_ID (<column_expression> [ ,...n ]) inputs the equivalent of the GROUPING (<column_expression>) return for each column in its column list in each output row as a string of ones and zeros. GROUPING_ID interprets that string as a base-2 number and returns the equivalent integer. For example consider the following statement: SELECT a, b, c, SUM(d), GROUPING_ID(a,b,c) FROM T GROUP BY <group by list>. The following table shows the GROUPING_ID () input and output values.

Columns aggregated

GROUPING_ID (a, b, c) input = GROUPING(a) + GROUPING(b) + GROUPING(c)

GROUPING_ID () output

a

100

4

b

010

2

c

001

1

ab

110

6

ac

101

5

bc

011

3

abc

111

7

Technical Definition of GROUPING_ID ()

Each GROUPING_ID argument must be an element of the GROUP BY list. GROUPING_ID () returns an integer bitmap whose lowest N bits may be lit. A lit bit indicates the corresponding argument is not a grouping column for the given output row. The lowest-order bit corresponds to argument N, and the N-1th lowest-order bit corresponds to argument 1.

GROUPING_ID () Equivalents

For a single grouping query, GROUPING (<column_expression>) is equivalent to GROUPING_ID (<column_expression>), and both return 0.

For example, the following statements are equivalent:

SELECT GROUPING_ID(A,B)
FROM T 
GROUP BY CUBE(A,B); 
SELECT 3 FROM T GROUP BY ()
UNION ALL
SELECT 1 FROM T GROUP BY A
UNION ALL
SELECT 2 FROM T GROUP BY B
UNION ALL
SELECT 0 FROM T GROUP BY A,B;

A. Using GROUPING_ID to identify grouping levels

The following example returns the count of employees by Name and Title, Name, and company total. GROUPING_ID() is used to create a value for each row in the Title column that identifies its level of aggregation.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO
SELECT D.Name
    ,CASE 
    WHEN GROUPING_ID(D.Name, E.JobTitle) = 0 THEN E.JobTitle
    WHEN GROUPING_ID(D.Name, E.JobTitle) = 1 THEN N'Total: ' + D.Name 
    WHEN GROUPING_ID(D.Name, E.JobTitle) = 3 THEN N'Company Total:'
        ELSE N'Unknown'
    END AS N'Job Title'
    ,COUNT(E.BusinessEntityID) AS N'Employee Count'
FROM HumanResources.Employee E
    INNER JOIN HumanResources.EmployeeDepartmentHistory DH
        ON E.BusinessEntityID = DH.BusinessEntityID
    INNER JOIN HumanResources.Department D
        ON D.DepartmentID = DH.DepartmentID     
WHERE DH.EndDate IS NULL
    AND D.DepartmentID IN (12,14)
GROUP BY ROLLUP(D.Name, E.JobTitle);

Here is the result set.

Name                       Job Title                           Employee Count
---------------------      ----------------------------        --------------
Document Control           Control Specialist                    2
Document Control           Document Control Assistant            2
Document Control           Document Control Manager              1
Document Control           Total: Document Control               5
Facilities and Maintenance Facilities Administrative Assistant   1
Facilities and Maintenance     Facilities Manager                1
Facilities and Maintenance     Janitor                           4
Facilities and Maintenance     Maintenance Supervisor            1
Facilities and Maintenance     Total: Facilities and Maintenance 7
NULL                           Company Total:                    12

(10 row(s) affected)

B. Using GROUPING_ID to filter a result set

Simple Example

In the following code, to return only the rows that have a count of employees by title, remove the comment characters from HAVING GROUPING_ID(D.Name, E.JobTitle); = 0. To return only rows with a count of employees by department, remove the comment characters from HAVING GROUPING_ID(D.Name, E.JobTitle) = 1;.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO
SELECT D.Name
    ,E.JobTitle
    ,GROUPING_ID(D.Name, E.JobTitle) AS 'Grouping Level'
    ,COUNT(E.BusinessEntityID) AS N'Employee Count'
FROM HumanResources.Employee AS E
    INNER JOIN HumanResources.EmployeeDepartmentHistory AS DH
        ON E.BusinessEntityID = DH.BusinessEntityID
    INNER JOIN HumanResources.Department AS D
        ON D.DepartmentID = DH.DepartmentID     
WHERE DH.EndDate IS NULL
    AND D.DepartmentID IN (12,14)
GROUP BY ROLLUP(D.Name, E.JobTitle)
--HAVING GROUPING_ID(D.Name, E.JobTitle) = 0; --All titles
--HAVING GROUPING_ID(D.Name, E.JobTitle) = 1; --Group by Name;

Here is the unfiltered result set.

Name

Title

Grouping Level

Employee Count

Name

Document Control

Control Specialist

0

2

Document Control

Document Control

Document Control Assistant

0

2

Document Control

Document Control

Document Control Manager

0

1

Document Control

Document Control

NULL

1

5

Document Control

Facilities and Maintenance

Facilities Administrative Assistant

0

1

Facilities and Maintenance

Facilities and Maintenance

Facilities Manager

0

1

Facilities and Maintenance

Facilities and Maintenance

Janitor

0

4

Facilities and Maintenance

Facilities and Maintenance

Maintenance Supervisor

0

1

Facilities and Maintenance

Facilities and Maintenance

NULL

1

7

Facilities and Maintenance

NULL

NULL

3

12

NULL

Complex Example

In the following example, GROUPING_ID() is used to filter a result set that contains multiple grouping levels by grouping level. Similar code can be used to create a view that has several grouping levels and a stored procedure that calls the view by passing a parameter that filters the view by grouping level.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO
DECLARE @Grouping nvarchar(50);
DECLARE @GroupingLevel smallint;
SET @Grouping = N'CountryRegionCode Total';

SELECT @GroupingLevel = (
    CASE @Grouping
        WHEN N'Grand Total'             THEN 15
        WHEN N'SalesPerson Total'       THEN 14
        WHEN N'Store Total'             THEN 13
        WHEN N'Store SalesPerson Total' THEN 12
        WHEN N'CountryRegionCode Total' THEN 11
        WHEN N'Group Total'             THEN 7
        ELSE N'Unknown'
    END);

SELECT 
    T.[Group]
    ,T.CountryRegionCode
    ,S.Name AS N'Store'
    ,(SELECT P.FirstName + ' ' + P.LastName 
        FROM Person.Person AS P 
        WHERE P.BusinessEntityID = H.SalesPersonID)
        AS N'Sales Person'
    ,SUM(TotalDue)AS N'TotalSold'
    ,CAST(GROUPING(T.[Group])AS char(1)) + 
        CAST(GROUPING(T.CountryRegionCode)AS char(1)) + 
        CAST(GROUPING(S.Name)AS char(1)) + 
        CAST(GROUPING(H.SalesPersonID)AS char(1)) 
        AS N'GROUPING base-2'
    ,GROUPING_ID((T.[Group])
        ,(T.CountryRegionCode),(S.Name),(H.SalesPersonID)
        ) AS N'GROUPING_ID'
    ,CASE 
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(
            (T.[Group]),(T.CountryRegionCode)
            ,(S.Name),(H.SalesPersonID)
            ) = 15 THEN N'Grand Total'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(
            (T.[Group]),(T.CountryRegionCode)
            ,(S.Name),(H.SalesPersonID)
            ) = 14 THEN N'SalesPerson Total'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(
            (T.[Group]),(T.CountryRegionCode)
            ,(S.Name),(H.SalesPersonID)
            ) = 13 THEN N'Store Total'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(
            (T.[Group]),(T.CountryRegionCode)
            ,(S.Name),(H.SalesPersonID)
            ) = 12 THEN N'Store SalesPerson Total'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(
            (T.[Group]),(T.CountryRegionCode)
            ,(S.Name),(H.SalesPersonID)
            ) = 11 THEN N'CountryRegionCode Total'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(
            (T.[Group]),(T.CountryRegionCode)
            ,(S.Name),(H.SalesPersonID)
            ) =  7 THEN N'Group Total'
        ELSE N'Error'
        END AS N'Level'
FROM Sales.Customer AS C
    INNER JOIN Sales.Store AS S
        ON C.StoreID  = S.BusinessEntityID 
    INNER JOIN Sales.SalesTerritory AS T
        ON C.TerritoryID  = T.TerritoryID 
    INNER JOIN Sales.SalesOrderHeader AS H
        ON C.CustomerID = H.CustomerID
GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ((S.Name,H.SalesPersonID)
    ,(H.SalesPersonID),(S.Name)
    ,(T.[Group]),(T.CountryRegionCode),()
    )
HAVING GROUPING_ID(
    (T.[Group]),(T.CountryRegionCode),(S.Name),(H.SalesPersonID)
    ) = @GroupingLevel
ORDER BY 
    GROUPING_ID(S.Name,H.SalesPersonID),GROUPING_ID((T.[Group])
    ,(T.CountryRegionCode)
    ,(S.Name)
    ,(H.SalesPersonID))ASC;

C. Using GROUPING_ID () with ROLLUP and CUBE to identify grouping levels

The code in the following examples show using GROUPING() to compute the Bit Vector(base-2) column. GROUPING_ID() is used to compute the corresponding Integer Equivalent column. The column order in the GROUPING_ID() function is the opposite of the column order of the columns that are concatenated by the GROUPING() function.

In these examples, GROUPING_ID() is used to create a value for each row in the Grouping Level column to identify the level of grouping. Grouping levels are not always a consecutive list of integers that start with 1 (0, 1, 2,...n).

Note Note

GROUPING and GROUPING_ID can be used n a HAVING clause to filter a result set.

ROLLUP Example

In this example, all grouping levels do not appear as they do in the following CUBE example. If the order of the columns in the ROLLUP list is changed, the level values in the Grouping Level column will also have to be changed.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO
SELECT DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate) AS N'Year'
    ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate) AS N'Month'
    ,DATEPART(dd,OrderDate) AS N'Day'
    ,SUM(TotalDue) AS N'Total Due'
    ,CAST(GROUPING(DATEPART(dd,OrderDate))AS char(1)) + 
        CAST(GROUPING(DATEPART(mm,OrderDate))AS char(1)) + 
        CAST(GROUPING(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate))AS char(1)) 
     AS N'Bit Vector(base-2)'
    ,GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
        ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate)
        ,DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)) 
        AS N'Integer Equivalent'
    ,CASE
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 0 THEN N'Year Month Day'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 1 THEN N'Year Month'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 2 THEN N'not used'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 3 THEN N'Year'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 4 THEN N'not used'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 5 THEN N'not used'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 6 THEN N'not used'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 7 THEN N'Grand Total'
    ELSE N'Error'
    END AS N'Grouping Level'
FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader
WHERE DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate) IN(N'2007',N'2008')
    AND DATEPART(mm,OrderDate) IN(1,2)
    AND DATEPART(dd,OrderDate) IN(1,2)
GROUP BY ROLLUP(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
        ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate)
        ,DATEPART(dd,OrderDate))
ORDER BY GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(mm,OrderDate)
    ,DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
    ,DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
    )
    ,DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
    ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate)
    ,DATEPART(dd,OrderDate);

Here is a partial result set.

Year

Month

Day

Total Due

Bit Vector (base-2)

Integer Equivalent

Grouping Level

2007

1

1

1497452.6066

000

0

Year Month Day

2007

1

2

21772.3494

000

0

Year Month Day

2007

2

1

2705653.5913

000

0

Year Month Day

2007

2

2

21684.4068

000

0

Year Month Day

2008

1

1

1908122.0967

000

0

Year Month Day

2008

1

2

46458.0691

000

0

Year Month Day

2008

2

1

3108771.9729

000

0

Year Month Day

2008

2

2

54598.5488

000

0

Year Month Day

2007

1

NULL

1519224.956

100

1

Year Month

2007

2

NULL

2727337.9981

100

1

Year Month

2008

1

NULL

1954580.1658

100

1

Year Month

2008

2

NULL

3163370.5217

100

1

Year Month

2007

NULL

NULL

4246562.9541

110

3

Year

2008

NULL

NULL

5117950.6875

110

3

Year

NULL

NULL

NULL

9364513.6416

111

7

Grand Total

CUBE Example

In this example, the GROUPING_ID() function is used to create a value for each row in the Grouping Level column to identify the level of grouping.

Unlike ROLLUP in the previous example, CUBE outputs all grouping levels. If the order of the columns in the CUBE list is changed, the level values in the Grouping Level column will also have to be changed.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO
SELECT DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate) AS N'Year'
    ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate) AS N'Month'
    ,DATEPART(dd,OrderDate) AS N'Day'
    ,SUM(TotalDue) AS N'Total Due'
    ,CAST(GROUPING(DATEPART(dd,OrderDate))AS char(1)) + 
        CAST(GROUPING(DATEPART(mm,OrderDate))AS char(1)) + 
        CAST(GROUPING(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate))AS char(1)) 
        AS N'Bit Vector(base-2)'
    ,GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
        ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate)
        ,DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)) 
        AS N'Integer Equivalent'
    ,CASE
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 0 THEN N'Year Month Day'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate) 
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 1 THEN N'Year Month'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate) 
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 2 THEN N'Year Day'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate) 
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 3 THEN N'Year'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate) 
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 4 THEN N'Month Day'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate) 
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 5 THEN N'Month'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate) 
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 6 THEN N'Day'
        WHEN GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate) 
            ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate),DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
            ) = 7 THEN N'Grand Total'
    ELSE N'Error'
    END AS N'Grouping Level'
FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader
WHERE DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate) IN(N'2007',N'2008')
    AND DATEPART(mm,OrderDate) IN(1,2)
    AND DATEPART(dd,OrderDate) IN(1,2)
GROUP BY CUBE(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
    ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate)
    ,DATEPART(dd,OrderDate))
ORDER BY GROUPING_ID(DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
    ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate)
    ,DATEPART(dd,OrderDate)
    )
    ,DATEPART(yyyy,OrderDate)
    ,DATEPART(mm,OrderDate)
    ,DATEPART(dd,OrderDate);

Here is a partial result set.

Year

Month

Day

Total Due

Bit Vector (base-2)

Integer Equivalent

Grouping Level

2007

1

1

1497452.6066

000

0

Year Month Day

2007

1

2

21772.3494

000

0

Year Month Day

2007

2

1

2705653.5913

000

0

Year Month Day

2007

2

2

21684.4068

000

0

Year Month Day

2008

1

1

1908122.0967

000

0

Year Month Day

2008

1

2

46458.0691

000

0

Year Month Day

2008

2

1

3108771.9729

000

0

Year Month Day

2008

2

2

54598.5488

000

0

Year Month Day

2007

1

NULL

1519224.956

100

1

Year Month

2007

2

NULL

2727337.9981

100

1

Year Month

2008

1

NULL

1954580.1658

100

1

Year Month

2008

2

NULL

3163370.5217

100

1

Year Month

2007

NULL

1

4203106.1979

010

2

Year Day

2007

NULL

2

43456.7562

010

2

Year Day

2008

NULL

1

5016894.0696

010

2

Year Day

2008

NULL

2

101056.6179

010

2

Year Day

2007

NULL

NULL

4246562.9541

110

3

Year

2008

NULL

NULL

5117950.6875

110

3

Year

NULL

1

1

3405574.7033

001

4

Month Day

NULL

1

2

68230.4185

001

4

Month Day

NULL

2

1

5814425.5642

001

4

Month Day

NULL

2

2

76282.9556

001

4

Month Day

NULL

1

NULL

3473805.1218

101

5

Month

NULL

2

NULL

5890708.5198

101

5

Month

NULL

NULL

1

9220000.2675

011

6

Day

NULL

NULL

2

144513.3741

011

6

Day

NULL

NULL

NULL

9364513.6416

111

7

Grand Total

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