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Bookmarking Events

A bookmark identifies an event in a channel or log file. You can use a bookmark when you query for or subscribe to events to begin reading events from that bookmarked event. Typically you create a bookmark of the last event in the result set (assuming that you have enumerated all events in the result set).

The following procedure describes how to create a bookmark from an event.

Bb427418.wedge(en-us,VS.85).gifTo create a bookmark from an event

  1. Call the EvtCreateBookmark function to create a bookmark. Pass NULL for the argument.
  2. Call the EvtUpdateBookmark function to update the bookmark with the event. Pass the handle to the event as the argument.
  3. Call the EvtRender function to create an XML string that represents the bookmark. Pass EvtRenderBookmark as the rendering flag.
  4. Persist the XML string for use later (for example, you can persist the XML string in a file or the registry).

The following procedure describes how to create a bookmark using an XML bookmark string that was persisted in the previous procedure.

Bb427418.wedge(en-us,VS.85).gifTo create a bookmark using an XML bookmark string

  1. Get the XML string that represents the bookmark that you previously persisted.
  2. Call the EvtCreateBookmark function to create a bookmark. Pass the XML string for the argument.

The following procedure describes how to use a bookmark in a query.

Bb427418.wedge(en-us,VS.85).gifTo use a bookmark in a query

  1. Call the EvtQuery function to get events that match your query.
  2. Call the EvtSeek function to seek to the bookmarked event. Pass the handle to the bookmark and the EvtSeekRelativeToBookmark flag.
  3. Call the EvtNext function in a loop to enumerate the events that begin after the bookmarked event (depending on the offset you specified in EvtSeek).
For an example, see Using a bookmark in a query.

The following procedure describes how to use a bookmark in a subscription.

Bb427418.wedge(en-us,VS.85).gifTo use a bookmark in a subscription

  1. Call the EvtSubscribe function to subscribe to events that match your query. Pass the handle to the bookmark and the EvtSubscribeStartAfterBookmark flag.
  2. If you implemented the EVT_SUBSCRIBE_CALLBACK function, your callback will receive events that begin after the bookmarked event.
  3. If you did not implement the callback, call the EvtNext function in a loop to enumerate the events that begin after the bookmarked event.
For an example, see Using a bookmark in a subscription.

Using a bookmark in a query

The following example shows how to use a bookmark in a query. The example expands on the example in Querying for Events.


// Enumerate all the events in the result set beginning with the bookmarked event. 
DWORD PrintResults(EVT_HANDLE hResults)
{
    DWORD status = ERROR_SUCCESS;
    EVT_HANDLE hEvents[ARRAY_SIZE];
    DWORD dwReturned = 0;
    LPWSTR pwsBookmarkXml = NULL;
    EVT_HANDLE hBookmark = NULL;

    // Get the persisted bookmark XML string.
    pwsBookmarkXml = GetBookmarkedString();

    // If the bookmark string was persisted, create a bookmark and
    // seek to the bookmarked event in the result set.
    if (pwsBookmarkXml)
    {
        hBookmark = EvtCreateBookmark(pwsBookmarkXml);
        if (NULL == hBookmark)
        {
            wprintf(L"EvtCreateBookmark failed with %lu\n", GetLastError());
            goto cleanup;
        }

        if (!EvtSeek(hResults, 1, hBookmark, 0, EvtSeekRelativeToBookmark))
        {
            wprintf(L"EvtSeek failed with %lu\n", GetLastError());
            goto cleanup;
        }
    }

    // Enumerate the events in the result set after the bookmarked event.
    while (true)
    {
        if (!EvtNext(hResults, ARRAY_SIZE, hEvents, INFINITE, 0, &dwReturned))
        {
            if (ERROR_NO_MORE_ITEMS != (status = GetLastError()))
            {
                wprintf(L"EvtNext failed with %lu\n", status);
            }

            goto cleanup;
        }

        for (DWORD i = 0; i < dwReturned; i++)
        {
            if (status = PrintEvent(hEvents[i]))
            {
                EvtClose(hEvents[i]);
                hEvents[i] = NULL;
            }
            else
            {
                goto cleanup;
            }
        }
    }

cleanup:

    if (ERROR_NO_MORE_ITEMS == status)
    {
        // Get the last event in the result set, use it to create a
        // bookmark, render the bookmark as an XML string, and persist the string.
        if (ERROR_SUCCESS != (status = SaveBookmark(hResults)))
            wprintf(L"\nFailed to save bookmark\n");
    }
    else
    {
        for (DWORD i = 0; i < dwReturned; i++)
        {
            if (NULL != hEvents[i])
                EvtClose(hEvents[i]);
        }
    }

    if (pwsBookmarkXml)
        free(pwsBookmarkXml);

    return status;
}

// Get the bookmark XML string from wherever you persisted it.
LPWSTR GetBookmarkedString(void)
{
    LPWSTR pwsBookmarkXML = NULL;

    // TODO: Add the code to get the bookmark XML string from storage.

    return pwsBookmarkXML;
}


// Persist the bookmark XML string. This example assumes that we've read through
// the result set and are persisting the last event as the bookmark.
DWORD SaveBookmark(EVT_HANDLE hResults)
{
    DWORD status = ERROR_SUCCESS;
    DWORD dwBufferSize = 0;
    DWORD dwBufferUsed = 0;
    DWORD dwPropertyCount = 0;
    DWORD dwReturned = 0;
    LPWSTR pBookmarkXml = NULL;
    EVT_HANDLE hBookmark = NULL;
    EVT_HANDLE hEvent = NULL;

    // Seek to the last event in the result set and get the event.
    if (!EvtSeek(hResults, 0, NULL, 0, EvtSeekRelativeToLast))
    {
        wprintf(L"EvtSeek failed with %lu\n", status = GetLastError());
        goto cleanup;
    }

    if (!EvtNext(hResults, 1, &hEvent, INFINITE, 0, &dwReturned))
    {
        wprintf(L"EvtNext failed with %lu\n", status = GetLastError());
        goto cleanup;
    }

    // Create a bookmark and update it with the last event in the result set.
    hBookmark = EvtCreateBookmark(NULL);
    if (NULL == hBookmark)
    {
        wprintf(L"EvtCreateBookmark failed with %lu\n", GetLastError());
        goto cleanup;
    }

    if (!EvtUpdateBookmark(hBookmark, hEvent))
    {
        wprintf(L"EvtUpdateBookmark failed with %lu\n", GetLastError());
        goto cleanup;
    }

    // Render the bookmark as an XML string that you can then persist.
    if (!EvtRender(NULL, hBookmark, EvtRenderBookmark, dwBufferSize, pBookmarkXml, &dwBufferUsed, &dwPropertyCount))
    {
        if (ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_BUFFER == (status = GetLastError()))
        {
            dwBufferSize = dwBufferUsed;
            pBookmarkXml = (LPWSTR)malloc(dwBufferSize);
            if (pBookmarkXml)
            {
                EvtRender(NULL, hBookmark, EvtRenderBookmark, dwBufferSize, pBookmarkXml, &dwBufferUsed, &dwPropertyCount);
            }
            else
            {
                wprintf(L"malloc failed\n");
                status = ERROR_OUTOFMEMORY;
                goto cleanup;
            }
        }

        if (ERROR_SUCCESS != (status = GetLastError()))
        {
            wprintf(L"EvtRender failed with %d\n", GetLastError());
            goto cleanup;
        }
    }

    // TODO: Add code to persist bookmark XML string.

cleanup:

    if (pBookmarkXml)
        free(pBookmarkXml);

    if (hBookmark)
        EvtClose(hBookmark);

    if (hEvent)
        EvtClose(hEvent);

    return status;
}


Using a bookmark in a subscription

The following example shows how to use a bookmark in a push subscription.


#include <windows.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <winevt.h>

#pragma comment(lib, "wevtapi.lib")

DWORD WINAPI SubscriptionCallback(EVT_SUBSCRIBE_NOTIFY_ACTION action, PVOID pContext, EVT_HANDLE hEvent);
DWORD PrintEvent(EVT_HANDLE hEvent);
EVT_HANDLE GetBookmark();
DWORD SaveBookmark(EVT_HANDLE hBookmark);


void main(void)
{
    DWORD status = ERROR_SUCCESS;
    EVT_HANDLE hSubscription = NULL;
    EVT_HANDLE hBookmark = NULL;
    LPWSTR pwsPath = L"<channel name goes here>";
    LPWSTR pwsQuery = L"<xpath query goes here>";

    // Get the saved bookmark.
    hBookmark = GetBookmark();

    // Subscribe to existing and furture events beginning with the bookmarked event.
    // If the bookmark has not been persisted, pass an empty bookmark and the subscription
    // will begin with the second event that matches the query criteria.
    hSubscription = EvtSubscribe(NULL, NULL, pwsPath, pwsQuery, hBookmark, (PVOID)hBookmark, 
                                 (EVT_SUBSCRIBE_CALLBACK)SubscriptionCallback, EvtSubscribeStartAfterBookmark);
    if (NULL == hSubscription)
    {
        wprintf(L"EvtSubscribe failed with %lu.\n", GetLastError());
        goto cleanup;
    }

    wprintf(L"Hit any key to quit\n\n");
    while (!_kbhit())
        Sleep(10);

    status = SaveBookmark(hBookmark);

cleanup:

    if (hSubscription)
        EvtClose(hSubscription);

    if (hBookmark)
        EvtClose(hBookmark);
 }


// The callback that receives the events that match the query criteria. Use the 
// context parameter to pass the handle to the bookmark, so you can update the bookmark
// with each event that you receive.
DWORD WINAPI SubscriptionCallback(EVT_SUBSCRIBE_NOTIFY_ACTION action, PVOID pContext, EVT_HANDLE hEvent)
{
    DWORD status = ERROR_SUCCESS;
    EVT_HANDLE hBookmark = (EVT_HANDLE)pContext;

    switch(action)
    {
        // You should only get the EvtSubscribeActionError action if your subscription flags 
        // includes EvtSubscribeStrict and the channel contains missing event records.
        case EvtSubscribeActionError:
            if (ERROR_EVT_QUERY_RESULT_STALE == (DWORD)hEvent)
            {
                wprintf(L"The subscription callback was notified that event records are missing.\n");
                // Handle if this is an issue for your application.
            }
            else
            {
                wprintf(L"The subscription callback received the following Win32 error: %lu\n", (DWORD)hEvent);
            }

            break;

        case EvtSubscribeActionDeliver:
            if (ERROR_SUCCESS != (status = PrintEvent(hEvent)))
            {
                goto cleanup;
            }

            if (!EvtUpdateBookmark(hBookmark, hEvent))
            {
                wprintf(L"EvtUpdateBookmark failed with %lu\n", status = GetLastError());
                goto cleanup;
            }

            break;

        default:
            wprintf(L"SubscriptionCallback: Unknown action.\n");
    }

cleanup:

    if (ERROR_SUCCESS != status)
    {
        // End subscription - Use some kind of IPC mechanism to signal
        // your application to close the subscription handle.
    }

    return status; // The service ignores the returned status.
}


EVT_HANDLE GetBookmark(void)
{
    DWORD status = ERROR_SUCCESS;
    EVT_HANDLE hBookmark = NULL;
    LPWSTR pBookmarkXml = NULL;

    // Set pBookmarkXml to the XML string that you persisted in SaveBookmark.

    hBookmark = EvtCreateBookmark(pBookmarkXml);
    if (NULL == hBookmark)
    {
        wprintf(L"EvtCreateBookmark failed with %lu\n", GetLastError());
        goto cleanup;
    }

cleanup:

    if (pBookmarkXml)
        free(pBookmarkXml);

    return hBookmark;
}


DWORD SaveBookmark(EVT_HANDLE hBookmark)
{
    DWORD status = ERROR_SUCCESS;
    DWORD dwBufferSize = 0;
    DWORD dwBufferUsed = 0;
    DWORD dwPropertyCount = 0;
    LPWSTR pBookmarkXml = NULL;

    if (!EvtRender(NULL, hBookmark, EvtRenderBookmark, dwBufferSize, pBookmarkXml, &dwBufferUsed, &dwPropertyCount))
    {
        if (ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_BUFFER == (status = GetLastError()))
        {
            dwBufferSize = dwBufferUsed;
            pBookmarkXml = (LPWSTR)malloc(dwBufferSize);
            if (pBookmarkXml)
            {
                EvtRender(NULL, hBookmark, EvtRenderBookmark, dwBufferSize, pBookmarkXml, &dwBufferUsed, &dwPropertyCount);
            }
            else
            {
                wprintf(L"malloc failed\n");
                status = ERROR_OUTOFMEMORY;
                goto cleanup;
            }
        }

        if (ERROR_SUCCESS != (status = GetLastError()))
        {
            wprintf(L"EvtRender failed with %d\n", status);
            goto cleanup;
        }
    }

    // Persist bookmark to a file or the registry.

cleanup:

    if (pBookmarkXml)
        free(pBookmarkXml);

    return status;
}


// Render the event as an XML string and print it.
DWORD PrintEvent(EVT_HANDLE hEvent)
{
    DWORD status = ERROR_SUCCESS;
    DWORD dwBufferSize = 0;
    DWORD dwBufferUsed = 0;
    DWORD dwPropertyCount = 0;
    LPWSTR pRenderedContent = NULL;

    if (!EvtRender(NULL, hEvent, EvtRenderEventXml, dwBufferSize, pRenderedContent, &dwBufferUsed, &dwPropertyCount))
    {
        if (ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_BUFFER == (status = GetLastError()))
        {
            dwBufferSize = dwBufferUsed;
            pRenderedContent = (LPWSTR)malloc(dwBufferSize);
            if (pRenderedContent)
            {
                EvtRender(NULL, hEvent, EvtRenderEventXml, dwBufferSize, pRenderedContent, &dwBufferUsed, &dwPropertyCount);
            }
            else
            {
                wprintf(L"malloc failed\n");
                status = ERROR_OUTOFMEMORY;
                goto cleanup;
            }
        }

        if (ERROR_SUCCESS != (status = GetLastError()))
        {
            wprintf(L"EvtRender failed with %d\n", status);
            goto cleanup;
        }
    }

    wprintf(L"%s\n\n", pRenderedContent);

cleanup:

    if (pRenderedContent)
        free(pRenderedContent);

    return status;
}


 

 

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