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Enumerable.Except<TSource> Method (IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TSource>)

Produces the set difference of two sequences by using the default equality comparer to compare values.

Namespace:  System.Linq
Assembly:  System.Core (in System.Core.dll)

public static IEnumerable<TSource> Except<TSource>(
	this IEnumerable<TSource> first,
	IEnumerable<TSource> second
)

Type Parameters

TSource

The type of the elements of the input sequences.

Parameters

first
Type: System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource>

An IEnumerable<T> whose elements that are not also in second will be returned.

second
Type: System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource>

An IEnumerable<T> whose elements that also occur in the first sequence will cause those elements to be removed from the returned sequence.

Return Value

Type: System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource>
A sequence that contains the set difference of the elements of two sequences.

Usage Note

In Visual Basic and C#, you can call this method as an instance method on any object of type IEnumerable<TSource>. When you use instance method syntax to call this method, omit the first parameter. For more information, see Extension Methods (Visual Basic) or Extension Methods (C# Programming Guide).

ExceptionCondition
ArgumentNullException

first or second is null.

This method is implemented by using deferred execution. The immediate return value is an object that stores all the information that is required to perform the action. The query represented by this method is not executed until the object is enumerated either by calling its GetEnumerator method directly or by using foreach in Visual C# or For Each in Visual Basic.

The set difference of two sets is defined as the members of the first set that do not appear in the second set.

NoteNote

This method returns those elements in first that do not appear in second. It does not also return those elements in second that do not appear in first.

The default equality comparer, Default, is used to compare values of the types that implement the IEqualityComparer<T> generic interface. To compare a custom data type, you need to implement this interface and provide your own GetHashCode and Equals methods for the type.

The following code example demonstrates how to use the Except<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TSource>) method to compare two sequences of numbers and return elements that appear only in the first sequence.

            double[] numbers1 = { 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 };
            double[] numbers2 = { 2.2 };

            IEnumerable<double> onlyInFirstSet = numbers1.Except(numbers2);

            foreach (double number in onlyInFirstSet)
                Console.WriteLine(number);

            /*
             This code produces the following output:

             2
             2.1
             2.3
             2.4
             2.5
            */

If you want to compare sequences of objects of some custom data type, you have to implement the IEqualityComparer<T> generic interface in a helper class. The following code example shows how to implement this interface in a custom data type and provide GetHashCode and Equals methods.

public class ProductA
{ 
    public string Name { get; set; }
    public int Code { get; set; }
}

public class ProductComparer : IEqualityComparer<ProductA>
{

    public bool Equals(ProductA x, ProductA y)
    {
        //Check whether the objects are the same object.  
        if (Object.ReferenceEquals(x, y)) return true;

        //Check whether the products' properties are equal.  
        return x != null && y != null && x.Code.Equals(y.Code) && x.Name.Equals(y.Name);
    }

    public int GetHashCode(ProductA obj)
    {
        //Get hash code for the Name field if it is not null.  
        int hashProductName = obj.Name == null ? 0 : obj.Name.GetHashCode();

        //Get hash code for the Code field.  
        int hashProductCode = obj.Code.GetHashCode();

        //Calculate the hash code for the product.  
        return hashProductName ^ hashProductCode;
    }
}

After you implement this interface, you can use sequences of ProductA objects in the Except<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TSource>) method, as shown in the following example.

        ProductA[] fruits1 = { new ProductA { Name = "apple", Code = 9 }, 
                               new ProductA { Name = "orange", Code = 4 },
                                new ProductA { Name = "lemon", Code = 12 } };

        ProductA[] fruits2 = { new ProductA { Name = "apple", Code = 9 } };

        //Get all the elements from the first array 
        //except for the elements from the second array.

        IEnumerable<ProductA> except =
            fruits1.Except(fruits2);

        foreach (var product in except)
            Console.WriteLine(product.Name + " " + product.Code);

        /*
          This code produces the following output:

          orange 4
          lemon 12
        */

.NET Framework

Supported in: 4.5, 4, 3.5

.NET Framework Client Profile

Supported in: 4, 3.5 SP1

Portable Class Library

Supported in: Portable Class Library

.NET for Windows Store apps

Supported in: Windows 8

.NET for Windows Phone apps

Supported in: Windows Phone 8.1, Windows Phone Silverlight 8.1, Windows Phone Silverlight 8

Windows Phone 8.1, Windows Phone 8, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012, Windows 7, Windows Vista SP2, Windows Server 2008 (Server Core Role not supported), Windows Server 2008 R2 (Server Core Role supported with SP1 or later; Itanium not supported)

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

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