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Writing Code for Different Types of Work Items by Using the Client Object Model for Team Foundation

When you write code for different team projects, you can perform the same function on different types of work items that serve similar purposes. These types might be different because they come from different process templates, or a team might have customized them for a specific team project. For example, you might want to perform the same function on user stories and requirements, both of which should represent what customers require and value. Instead of writing separate code for each type of work item, you can generalize your code to work for both. In addition, one team might have customized the work item definition for user stories so that team members can estimate work in hours instead of in story points. You can avoid duplicating your own effort by adjusting your code to handle both the default and the customized strategies.

In this topic, you can find a code sample that performs a task on a specific type of work item that has not been customized, and then you can learn how to refactor that code to support certain kinds of customizations. For more information about how to customize types of work items, see Customize team projects and processes.

In this topic

This code sample prints trees of all user stories in each team project on a server and includes estimates for each story that has no children. To use this sample, you create a console application, add references to the following assemblies, and then replace the contents of Program.cs ( or Module1.vb ) with the following code.

Imports System
Imports System.Text
Imports System.Collections.ObjectModel
Imports Microsoft.TeamFoundation.Client
Imports Microsoft.TeamFoundation.Framework.Client
Imports Microsoft.TeamFoundation.Framework.Common
Imports Microsoft.TeamFoundation.WorkItemTracking.Client

Module Module1
    Sub Main(ByVal sArgs() As String)

        Try
            ' Connect to the Team Foundation Server. The form of the url is http://server:port/vpath.
            ' Server - the name of the server that is running the application tier for Team Foundation
            ' Port - the port that Team Foundation uses. The default port is 8080.
            ' Vpath - the virtual path to the Team Foundation application. The default is tfs.

            Dim tfsUri As New Uri("http://Server:8080/tfs")
            Dim configurationServer As TfsConfigurationServer
            configurationServer = TfsConfigurationServerFactory.GetConfigurationServer(tfsUri)

            ' Get the catalog of team project collections
            Dim catalogNode As CatalogNode
            catalogNode = configurationServer.CatalogNode
            Dim tpcNodes As ReadOnlyCollection(Of CatalogNode)
            Dim gVar As Guid() = New Guid() {CatalogResourceTypes.ProjectCollection}
            tpcNodes = catalogNode.QueryChildren(gVar, False, CatalogQueryOptions.None)
            ' Process each team project collection
            For Each tpcNode In tpcNodes
                Dim tpcGuid As Guid = New Guid(tpcNode.Resource.Properties("InstanceID"))
                Dim tpc As New TfsTeamProjectCollection(tfsUri)
                tpc = configurationServer.GetTeamProjectCollection(tpcGuid)
                ' Get the work item store
                Dim wiStore As WorkItemStore
                wiStore = tpc.GetService(Of WorkItemStore)()
                ' Query for the trees of active user stories in the team project collection
                Dim queryString As New StringBuilder("SELECT [System.ID] FROM WorkItemLinks WHERE ")
                queryString.Append("([Source].[System.WorkItemType] = 'User Story' AND [Source].[System.State] = 'Active') AND ")
                queryString.Append("([System.Links.LinkType] = 'System.LinkTypes.Hierarchy-Forward') And ")
                queryString.Append("([Target].[System.WorkItemType] = 'User Story' AND [Target].[System.State] = 'Active') ORDER BY [System.Id] mode(Recursive)")
                Dim wiQuery As New Query(wiStore, queryString.ToString())
                Dim wiTrees() As WorkItemLinkInfo
                wiTrees = wiQuery.RunLinkQuery()

                ' Print the trees of user stories with the estimated size of each leaf.
                PrintTrees(wiStore, wiTrees, "   ", 0, 0)
            Next

        Catch ex As Exception
            Console.WriteLine(ex.Message)

        End Try
        


    End Sub

    ' Each WorkItemLinkInfo structure in the collection contains the IDs of the linked work items.
    ' In this case, the sourceId is the ID of the user story that is on the parent side of the link, and
    ' the targetId is the ID of the user story that is on the child side of the link. The links
    ' are returned in depth-first order. This function recursively traverses the collection
    ' and the title of each user story. If the user story has no children, its estimation is also printed.

    Function PrintTrees(ByVal wiStore As WorkItemStore, ByVal wiTrees As WorkItemLinkInfo(), ByVal prefix As String, ByVal sourceId As Integer, ByVal iThis As Integer) As Integer

        Dim iNext As Integer = 0

        ' Get the parent of this user story, if it has one
        Dim source As WorkItem = Nothing

        If sourceId <> 0 Then
            source = wiStore.GetWorkItem(wiTrees(iThis).SourceId)
        End If

        ' Process the items in the list that have the same parent as this user story
        While (iThis < wiTrees.Length AndAlso wiTrees(iThis).SourceId = sourceId)
            ' Get this user story

            Dim target As WorkItem
            target = wiStore.GetWorkItem(wiTrees(iThis).TargetId)
            Console.Write(prefix)
            Console.Write(target.Type.Name)
            Console.Write(":  ")
            Console.Write(target.Fields("Title").Value)
            If iThis < (wiTrees.Length - 1) Then
                If wiTrees(iThis).TargetId = wiTrees(iThis + 1).SourceId Then

                    ' The next item is the user story's child.
                    Console.WriteLine()
                    iNext = PrintTrees(wiStore, wiTrees, prefix + "   ", wiTrees(iThis + 1).SourceId, iThis + 1)
                Else

                    ' The next item is not the user story's child
                    Console.Write("; estimate = ")
                    Console.WriteLine(target.Fields("Story Points").Value)
                    iNext = iThis + 1
                End If
            Else
                ' This user story is the last one.
                iNext = iThis + 1
            End If
            iThis = iNext
        End While
        Return iNext
    End Function

End Module

This sample modifies the PrintTrees method to determine whether each work item uses the story points field or the baseline work field and to print the estimate from that field. To use this sample, you replace the line Console.WriteLine(target.Fields["Story Points"].Value); in the PrintTrees method with the following code.

Dim fieldName As String
fieldName = "Story Points"
If (target.Type.FieldDefinitions.TryGetByName(fieldName) Is Nothing) Then
    fieldName = "Baseline Work"
End If
Console.WriteLine(target.Fields(fieldName).Value)

You can group into categories different types of work items that serve the same or similar purposes in different team projects. You can write code to perform the same function on all work items that belong to a category. This sample prints estimates for any type of work item in the requirements category, such as user stories, requirements, and product backlog items.

To use this sample, replace the Main function from the previous sample with the following code.

Sub Main(ByVal sArgs() As String)

        Try
            ' Connect to the Team Foundation Server. The form of the url is http://server:port/vpath.
            ' Server - the name of the server that is running the application tier for Team Foundation
            ' Port - the port that Team Foundation uses. The default port is 8080.
            ' Vpath - the virtual path to the Team Foundation application. The default is tfs.

            Dim tfsUri As New Uri("http://server:8080/tfs")
            Dim configurationServer As TfsConfigurationServer
            configurationServer = TfsConfigurationServerFactory.GetConfigurationServer(tfsUri)

            ' Get the catalog of team project collections
            Dim catalogNode As CatalogNode
            catalogNode = configurationServer.CatalogNode
            Dim tpcNodes As ReadOnlyCollection(Of CatalogNode)
            Dim gVar As Guid() = New Guid() {CatalogResourceTypes.ProjectCollection}
            tpcNodes = catalogNode.QueryChildren(gVar, False, CatalogQueryOptions.None)
            ' Process each team project collection
            For Each tpcNode In tpcNodes
                Dim tpcGuid As Guid = New Guid(tpcNode.Resource.Properties("InstanceID"))
                Dim tpc As New TfsTeamProjectCollection(tfsUri)
                tpc = configurationServer.GetTeamProjectCollection(tpcGuid)
                ' Get the work item store

                Dim wiStore As WorkItemStore
                wiStore = tpc.GetService(Of WorkItemStore)()
                ' Query for the trees of active user stories in the team project collection
                Dim project As Project
                For Each project In wiStore.Projects
                    Console.Write("Project: ")
                    Console.WriteLine(project.Name)

                    ' Get the type of work item to use
                    Dim categories As CategoryCollection
                    categories = wiStore.Projects(project.Name).Categories
                    Dim wiType As String
                    wiType = categories("Requirement Category").DefaultWorkItemType.Name
                    ' Query for the trees of active user stories in the team project collection
                    Dim queryString As New StringBuilder("SELECT [System.Id] FROM WorkItemLinks WHERE ")
                    queryString.Append("([Source].[System.WorkItemType] = '") 
                    queryString.Append(wiType) 
                    queryString.Append("' AND [Source].[System.TeamProject] = '") 
                    queryString.Append(project.Name)
                    queryString.Append("') AND ")
                    queryString.Append("([System.Links.LinkType] = 'System.LinkTypes.Hierarchy-Forward') And ")
                    queryString.Append("([Target].[System.WorkItemType] = 'User Story' AND [Target].[System.State] = 'Active') ORDER BY [System.Id] mode(Recursive)")
                    Dim wiQuery As New Query(wiStore, queryString.ToString())
                    Dim wiTrees() As WorkItemLinkInfo
                    wiTrees = wiQuery.RunLinkQuery()

                    ' Print the trees of user stories with the estimated size of each leaf.
                    PrintTrees(wiStore, wiTrees, "   ", 0, 0)
                Next
                
            Next

        Catch ex As Exception
            Console.WriteLine(ex.Message)

        End Try
    End Sub
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