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Predefined Macros

Lists the predefined ANSI C and Microsoft C++ implementation macros.

The compiler recognizes predefined ANSI C macros, and the Microsoft C++ implementation provides several more. These macros take no arguments and cannot be redefined. Some of the predefined macros listed in this article are defined with multiple values.

ANSI-Compliant Predefined Macros

Macro

Description

__DATE__

The compilation date of the current source file. The date is a string literal of the form Mmm dd yyyy. The month name Mmm is the same as for dates generated by the library function asctime declared in TIME.H.

__FILE__

The name of the current source file. __FILE__ expands to a string surrounded by double quotation marks. To ensure that the full path to the file is displayed, use /FC (Full Path of Source Code File in Diagnostics).

__LINE__

The line number in the current source file. The line number is a decimal integer constant. It can be changed with a #line directive.

__STDC__

Indicates full conformance with the ANSI C standard. Defined as the integer constant 1 only if the /Za compiler option is given and you are not compiling C++ code; otherwise is undefined.

__TIME__

The most recent compilation time of the current source file. The time is a string literal of the form hh:mm:ss.

__TIMESTAMP__

The date and time of the last modification of the current source file, expressed as a string literal in the form Ddd Mmm Date hh:mm:ss yyyy, where Ddd is the abbreviated day of the week and Date is an integer from 1 to 31.

Microsoft-Specific Predefined Macros

Macro

Description

_ATL_VER

Defines the ATL version.

In Visual Studio 2012, _ATL_VER is defined as 0x0B00.

_CHAR_UNSIGNED

Default char type is unsigned. Defined when /J is specified.

__CLR_VER

Defines the version of the common language runtime used when the application was compiled. The value returned will be in the following format:

Mmmbbbbb

where,

  • M is the major version of the runtime

  • mm is the minor version of the runtime

  • bbbbb is the build number.

// clr_ver.cpp
// compile with: /clr
using namespace System;
int main() {
   Console::WriteLine(__CLR_VER);
}

__cplusplus_cli

Defined when you compile with /clr, /clr:pure, or /clr:safe. Value of __cplusplus_cli is 200406. __cplusplus_cli is in effect throughout the translation unit.

// cplusplus_cli.cpp
// compile with: /clr
#include "stdio.h"
int main() {
   #ifdef __cplusplus_cli
      printf("%d\n", __cplusplus_cli);
   #else
      printf("not defined\n");
   #endif
}

__cplusplus_winrt

Defined when you use the /ZW option to compile. The value of __cplusplus_winrt is 201009.

__COUNTER__

Expands to an integer starting with 0 and incrementing by 1 every time it is used in a source file or included headers of the source file. __COUNTER__ remembers its state when you use precompiled headers.

The following example uses __COUNTER__ to assign unique identifiers to three different objects of the same type.

First, assume the following class definition. The constructor takes an integer as a parameter.

// initialize object with a read-only unique ID
exampleClass::exampleClass(int nID)
{
	m_nID = nID;
}

int exampleClass::GetID()
{
	return m_nID;
}

In main, the application declares three objects of type exampleClass, using __COUNTER__ as the unique identifier parameter.

// Demonstration of __COUNTER__, assigns unique identifiers to 
//  different objects of the same type 
int main(int argc, char** argv)
{
	// __COUNTER__ is initially defined as 0
	exampleClass e1(__COUNTER__);

	// having been referenced, __COUNTER__ is now defined as 1
	exampleClass e2(__COUNTER__);

	// __COUNTER__ is now defined as 2
	exampleClass e3(__COUNTER__);

	printf("e1 ID: %i\n", e1.GetID());
	printf("e2 ID: %i\n", e2.GetID());
	printf("e3 ID: %i\n", e3.GetID());

	// Output 
	// ------------------------------ 
	// e1 ID: 0 
	// e2 ID: 1 
	// e3 ID: 2 

	return 0;
}

__cplusplus

Defined for C++ programs only.

_CPPRTTI

Defined for code compiled with /GR (Enable Run-Time Type Information).

_CPPUNWIND

Defined for code compiled by using one of the /EH (Exception Handling Model) flags.

_DEBUG

Defined when you compile with /LDd, /MDd, and /MTd.

_DLL

Defined when /MD or /MDd (Multithreaded DLL) is specified.

__FUNCDNAME__

Valid only in a function. Defines the decorated name of the enclosing function as a string.

__FUNCDNAME__ is not expanded if you use the /EP or /P compiler option.

The following example uses the __FUNCDNAME__, __FUNCSIG__, and __FUNCTION__ macros to display function information.

// Demonstrates functionality of __FUNCTION__, __FUNCDNAME__, and __FUNCSIG__ macros 
void exampleFunction()
{
	printf("Function name: %s\n", __FUNCTION__);
	printf("Decorated function name: %s\n", __FUNCDNAME__);
	printf("Function signature: %s\n", __FUNCSIG__);
	
	// Sample Output 
	// ------------------------------------------------- 
	// Function name: exampleFunction 
	// Decorated function name: ?exampleFunction@@YAXXZ 
	// Function signature: void __cdecl exampleFunction(void)
}

__FUNCSIG__

Valid only in a function. Defines the signature of the enclosing function as a string.

__FUNCSIG__ is not expanded if you use the /EP or /P compiler option.

On a 64-bit operating system, the calling convention is __cdecl by default.

See __FUNCDNAME__ for an example.

__FUNCTION__

Valid only in a function. Defines the undecorated name of the enclosing function as a string.

__FUNCTION__ is not expanded if you use the /EP or /P compiler option.

See __FUNCDNAME__ for an example.

_INTEGRAL_MAX_BITS

Reports the maximum size (in bits) for an integral type.

// integral_max_bits.cpp
#include <stdio.h>
int main() {
   printf("%d\n", _INTEGRAL_MAX_BITS);
}

_M_ALPHA

Defined for DEC ALPHA platforms (no longer supported).

_M_AMD64

Defined for x64 processors.

_M_CEE

Defined for a compilation that uses any form of /clr (/clr:oldSyntax, /clr:safe, for example).

_M_CEE_PURE

Defined for a compilation that uses /clr:pure.

_M_CEE_SAFE

Defined for a compilation that uses /clr:safe.

_M_IX86

Defined for x86 processors. See the Values for _M_IX86 table below for more information. This is not defined for x64 processors.

_M_IA64

Defined for Itanium Processor Family 64-bit processors.

_M_ARM_FP

Expands to a value indicating which /arch compiler option was used:

  • In the range 30-39 if no /arch ARM option was specified, indicating the default architecture for ARM was used (VFPv3).

  • In the range 40-49 if /arch:VFPv4 was used.

  • See /arch (x86) for more information.

_M_IX86_FP

Expands to a value indicating which /arch compiler option was used:

  • 0 if /arch:IA32 was used.

  • 1 if /arch:SSE was used.

  • 2 if /arch:SSE2 was used. This value is the default if /arch was not specified.

  • See /arch (x86) for more information.

_M_MPPC

Defined for Power Macintosh platforms (no longer supported).

_M_MRX000

Defined for MIPS platforms (no longer supported).

_M_PPC

Defined for PowerPC platforms (no longer supported).

_M_X64

Defined for x64 processors.

_MANAGED

Defined to be 1 when /clr is specified.

_MFC_VER

Defines the MFC version. For example, in Visual Studio 2012, _MFC_VER is defined as 0x0B00.

_MSC_BUILD

Evaluates to the revision number component of the compiler's version number. The revision number is the fourth component of the period-delimited version number. For example, if the version number of the Visual C++ compiler is 15.00.20706.01, the _MSC_BUILD macro evaluates to 1.

_MSC_EXTENSIONS

This macro is defined when you compile with the /Ze compiler option (the default). Its value, when defined, is 1.

_MSC_FULL_VER

Evaluates to the major, minor, and build number components of the compiler's version number. The major number is the first component of the period-delimited version number, the minor number is the second component, and the build number is the third component. For example, if the version number of the Visual C++ compiler is 15.00.20706.01, the _MSC_FULL_VER macro evaluates to 150020706. Type cl /? at the command line to view the compiler's version number.

_MSC_VER

Evaluates to the major and minor number components of the compiler's version number. The major number is the first component of the period-delimited version number and the minor number is the second component.

For example, if the version number of the Visual C++ compiler is 17.00.51106.1, the _MSC_VER macro evaluates to 1700.

__MSVC_RUNTIME_CHECKS

Defined when one of the /RTC compiler options is specified.

_MT

Defined when /MD or /MDd (Multithreaded DLL) or /MT or /MTd (Multithreaded) is specified.

_NATIVE_WCHAR_T_DEFINED

Defined when /Zc:wchar_t is used.

_OPENMP

Defined when compiling with /openmp, returns an integer representing the date of the OpenMP specification implemented by Visual C++.

// _OPENMP_dir.cpp
// compile with: /openmp 
#include <stdio.h> 
int main() {
   printf("%d\n", _OPENMP);
}

_VC_NODEFAULTLIB

Defined when /Zl is used; see /Zl (Omit Default Library Name) for more information.

_WCHAR_T_DEFINED

Defined when /Zc:wchar_t is used or if wchar_t is defined in a system header file included in your project.

_WIN32

Defined for applications for Win32 and Win64. Always defined.

_WIN64

Defined for applications for Win64.

_Wp64

Defined when specifying /Wp64.

As shown in following table, the compiler generates a value for the preprocessor identifiers that reflect the processor option specified.

Values for _M_IX86

Option in Development Environment

Command-Line Option

Resulting Value

Blend

/GB

_M_IX86 = 600 (Default. Future compilers will emit a different value to reflect the dominant processor.)

Pentium

/G5

_M_IX86 = 500

Pentium Pro, Pentium II, and Pentium III

/G6

_M_IX86 = 600

80386

/G3

_M_IX86 = 300

80486

/G4

_M_IX86 = 400

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