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CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry function

The CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry function adds a new unicast IP address entry on the local computer.

Syntax


NETIOAPI_API CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry(
  _In_  const MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW *Row
);

Parameters

Row [in]

A pointer to a MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW structure entry for a unicast IP address entry.

Return value

If the function succeeds, the return value is NO_ERROR.

If the function fails, the return value is one of the following error codes.

Return codeDescription
ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED

Access is denied. This error is returned under several conditions that include the following: the user lacks the required administrative privileges on the local computer or the application is not running in an enhanced shell as the built-in Administrator (RunAs administrator).

ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER

An invalid parameter was passed to the function. This error is returned if a NULL pointer is passed in the Row parameter, the Address member of the MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW pointed to by the Row parameter was not set to a valid unicast IPv4 or IPv6 address, or both the InterfaceLuid and InterfaceIndex members of the MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW pointed to by the Row parameter were unspecified.

This error is also returned for other errors in the values set for members in the MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW structure. These errors include the following: if the ValidLifetime member is less than than the PreferredLifetime member, if the PrefixOrigin member is set to IpPrefixOriginUnchanged and the SuffixOrigin is the not set to IpSuffixOriginUnchanged, if the PrefixOrigin member is not set to IpPrefixOriginUnchanged and the SuffixOrigin is set to IpSuffixOriginUnchanged, if the PrefixOrigin member is not set to a value from the NL_PREFIX_ORIGIN enumeration, if the SuffixOrigin member is not set to a value from the NL_SUFFIX_ORIGIN enumeration, or if the OnLinkPrefixLength member is set to a value greater than the IP address length, in bits (32 for a unicast IPv4 address or 128 for a unicast IPv6 address).

ERROR_NOT_FOUND

The specified interface could not be found. This error is returned if the network interface specified by the InterfaceLuid or InterfaceIndex member of the MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW pointed to by the Row parameter could not be found.

ERROR_NOT_SUPPORTED

The request is not supported. This error is returned if no IPv4 stack is on the local computer and an IPv4 address was specified in the Address member of the MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW pointed to by the Row parameter. This error is also returned if no IPv6 stack is on the local computer and an IPv6 address was specified in the Address member.

ERROR_OBJECT_ALREADY_EXISTS

The object already exists. This error is returned if the Address member of the MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW pointed to by the Row parameter is a duplicate of an existing unicast IP address on the interface specified by the InterfaceLuid or InterfaceIndex member of the MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW.

Other

Use FormatMessage to obtain the message string for the returned error.

 

Remarks

The CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry function is defined on Windows Vista and later.

The CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry function is used to add a new unicast IP address entry on a local computer. The unicast IP address added by the CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry function is not persistent. The IP address exists only as long as the adapter object exists. Restarting the computer destroys the IP address, as does manually resetting the network interface card (NIC). Also, certain PnP events may destroy the address.

To create an IPv4 address that persists, the EnableStatic method of the Win32_NetworkAdapterConfiguration Class in the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) controls may be used. The netsh command can also be used to create a persistent IPv4 or IPv6 address. For more information, please see the documentation on Netsh.exe in the Windows Sockets documentation.

The InitializeUnicastIpAddressEntry function should be used to initialize the members of a MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW structure entry with default values. An application can then change the members in the MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW entry it wishes to modify, and then call the CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry function.

The Address member in the MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW structure pointed to by the Row parameter must be initialized to a valid unicast IPv4 or IPv6 address. The si_family member of the SOCKADDR_INET structure in the Address member must be initialized to either AF_INET or AF_INET6 and the related Ipv4 or Ipv6 member of the SOCKADDR_INET structure must be set to a valid unicast IP address. In addition, at least one of the following members in the MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW structure pointed to the Row parameter must be initialized to the interface: the InterfaceLuid or InterfaceIndex. The fields are used in the order listed above. So if the InterfaceLuid is specified, then this member is used to determine the interface on which to add the unicast IP address. If no value was set for the InterfaceLuid member (the values of this member was set to zero), then the InterfaceIndex member is next used to determine the interface.

If the OnLinkPrefixLength member of the MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW pointed to by the Row parameter is set to 255, then CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry will add the new unicast IP address with the OnLinkPrefixLength member set equal to the length of the IP address. So for a unicast IPv4 address, the OnLinkPrefixLength is set to 32 and the OnLinkPrefixLength is set to 128 for a unicast IPv6 address. If this would result in the incorrect subnet mask for an IPv4 address or the incorrect link prefix for an IPv6 address, then the application should set this member to the correct value before calling CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry.

If a unicast IP address is created with the OnLinkPrefixLength member set incorrectly, then the IP address may be changed by calling SetUnicastIpAddressEntry with the OnLinkPrefixLength member set to the correct value.

The DadState, ScopeId, and CreationTimeStamp members of the MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW structure pointed to by the Row are ignored when the CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry function is called. These members are set by the network stack. The ScopeId member is automatically determined by the interface on which the address is added.

The CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry function will fail if the unicast IP address passed in the Address member of the MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW pointed to by the Row parameter is a duplicate of an existing unicast IP address on the interface. Note that a loopback IP address can only be added to a loopback interface using the CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry function.

The unicast IP address passed in the Address member of the MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW pointed to by the Row parameter is not usable immediately. The IP address is usable after the duplicate address detection process has completed successfully. It can take several seconds for the duplicate address detection process to complete since IP packets need to be sent and potential responses must be awaited. For IPv6, the duplicate address detection process typically takes about a second. For IPv4, the duplicate address detection process typically takes about three seconds.

If an application that needs to know when an IP address is usable after a call to the CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry function, there are two methods that can be used. One method uses polling and the GetUnicastIpAddressEntry function. The second method calls one of the notification functions, NotifyAddrChange, NotifyIpInterfaceChange, or NotifyUnicastIpAddressChange to set up an asynchronous notification for when an address changes.

The following method describes how to use the GetUnicastIpAddressEntry and polling. After the call to the CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry function returns successfully, pause for one to three seconds (depending on whether an IPv6 or IPv4 address is being created) to allow time for the successful completion of the duplication address detection process. Then call the GetUnicastIpAddressEntry function to retrieve the updated MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW structure and examine the value of the DadState member. If the value of the DadState member is set to IpDadStatePreferred, the IP address is now usable. If the value of the DadState member is set to IpDadStateTentative, then duplicate address detection has not yet completed. In this case, call the GetUnicastIpAddressEntry function again every half a second while the DadState member is still set to IpDadStateTentative. If the value of the DadState member returns with some value other than IpDadStatePreferred or IpDadStateTentative, duplicate address detection has failed and the IP address is not usable.

The following method describes how to use an appropriate notification function. After the call to the CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry function returns successfully, call the NotifyUnicastIpAddressChange function to register to be notified of changes to either IPv6 or IPv4 unicast IP addresses, depending on the type of IP address being created. When a notification is received for the IP address being created, call the GetUnicastIpAddressEntry function to retrieve the DadState member. If the value of the DadState member is set to IpDadStatePreferred, the IP address is now usable. If the value of the DadState member is set to IpDadStateTentative, then duplicate address detection has not yet completed and the application needs to wait for future notifications. If the value of the DadState member returns with some value other than IpDadStatePreferred or IpDadStateTentative, duplicate address detection has failed and the IP address is not usable.

If during the duplicate address detection process the media is disconnected and then reconnected, the duplicate address detection process is restarted. So it is possible for the time to complete the process to increase beyond the typical 1 second value for IPv6 or 3 second value for IPv4.

The CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry function can only be called by a user logged on as a member of the Administrators group. If CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry is called by a user that is not a member of the Administrators group, the function call will fail and ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED is returned. This function can also fail because of user account control (UAC) on Windows Vista and later. If an application that contains this function is executed by a user logged on as a member of the Administrators group other than the built-in Administrator, this call will fail unless the application has been marked in the manifest file with a requestedExecutionLevel set to requireAdministrator. If the application on lacks this manifest file, a user logged on as a member of the Administrators group other than the built-in Administrator must then be executing the application in an enhanced shell as the built-in Administrator (RunAs administrator) for this function to succeed.

Examples

The following example demonstrates how to use the CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry function to add a new unicast IP address entry on the local computer.



#ifndef WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN
#define WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN
#endif

#include <windows.h>
#include <winsock2.h>
#include <ws2ipdef.h> 
#include <iphlpapi.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

// Need to link with Iphlpapi.lib and Ws2_32.lib
#pragma comment(lib, "iphlpapi.lib")
#pragma comment(lib, "ws2_32.lib")

HANDLE gCallbackComplete;
HANDLE gNotifyEvent;

void CALLBACK CallCompleted (VOID *callerContext, 
    PMIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW row, 
    MIB_NOTIFICATION_TYPE notificationType);

int main(int argc, char **argv)  {

    // Declare and initialize variables
    
    unsigned long ipAddress = INADDR_NONE;
    unsigned long ipMask = INADDR_NONE;

    DWORD dwRetVal = 0;

    DWORD dwSize = 0;
    unsigned long status = 0;

    DWORD lastError = 0;
    SOCKADDR_IN localAddress;

    NET_LUID interfaceLuid;
    PMIB_IPINTERFACE_TABLE pipTable = NULL; 
    MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW ipRow;

    // Validate the parameters
    if (argc != 3) {
        printf("usage: %s IPv4address IPv4mask\n", argv[0]);
        exit(1);
    }

    ipAddress = inet_addr(argv[1]);
    if (ipAddress == INADDR_NONE) {
        printf("usage: %s IPv4address IPv4mask\n", argv[0]);
        exit(1);
    }

    ipMask = inet_addr(argv[2]);
    if (ipMask == INADDR_NONE) {
        printf("usage: %s IPv4address IPv4mask\n", argv[0]);
        exit(1);
    }


    status = GetIpInterfaceTable( AF_INET, &pipTable );
    if( status != NO_ERROR )
    {
        printf("GetIpInterfaceTable returned error: %ld\n", 
            status);
        exit(1);
    }

    // Use loopback interface
    interfaceLuid = pipTable->Table[0].InterfaceLuid;

    localAddress.sin_family            = AF_INET;
    localAddress.sin_addr.S_un.S_addr  = ipAddress;
    
    FreeMibTable(pipTable);
    pipTable = NULL;    

    // Initialize the row
    InitializeUnicastIpAddressEntry( &ipRow );

    ipRow.InterfaceLuid = interfaceLuid;
    ipRow.Address.Ipv4 = localAddress;

    // Create a Handle to be notified of IP address changes
    gCallbackComplete = CreateEvent(NULL, FALSE, FALSE, NULL);
    if (gCallbackComplete == NULL) {
        printf("CreateEvent failed with error: %d\n", GetLastError() );
        exit(1);
    }    
    
    // Use NotifyUnicastIpAddressChange to determine when the address is ready
    NotifyUnicastIpAddressChange(AF_INET, &CallCompleted, NULL, FALSE, &gNotifyEvent);

    status = CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry(&ipRow);
    if(status != NO_ERROR)
    {
        CancelMibChangeNotify2(gNotifyEvent);
        switch(status)
        {
            case ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER:
                printf("Error: CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry returned ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER\n");
                break;
            case ERROR_NOT_FOUND:
                printf("Error: CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry returned ERROR_NOT_FOUND\n");
                break;
            case ERROR_NOT_SUPPORTED:
                printf("Error: CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry returned ERROR_NOT_SUPPORTED\n");
                break;
            case ERROR_OBJECT_ALREADY_EXISTS:
                printf("Error: CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry returned ERROR_OBJECT_ALREADY_EXISTS\n");
                break;
            default:
                //NOTE: Is this case needed? If not, we can remove the ErrorExit() function
                printf("CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry returned error: %d\n", status);
                break;
        }
        exit (status);
        
    }
    else
        printf("CreateUnicastIpAddressEntry succeeded\n");
        
    // Set timeout to 6 seconds
    status = WaitForSingleObject(gCallbackComplete, 6000);
    if(status != WAIT_OBJECT_0)
    {
        CancelMibChangeNotify2(gNotifyEvent);
        CancelMibChangeNotify2(gCallbackComplete);
        switch(status)
        {
            case WAIT_ABANDONED:
                printf("Wait on event was abandoned\n");
                break;
            case WAIT_TIMEOUT:
                printf("Wait on event timed out\n");
                break;
            default:
                printf("Wait on event exited with status %d\n", status);
                break;
        }
        return status;
    }
    printf("Task completed successfully\n");
    CancelMibChangeNotify2(gNotifyEvent);
    CancelMibChangeNotify2(gCallbackComplete);

    exit (0);
}


void CALLBACK CallCompleted(PVOID callerContext, PMIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW row, MIB_NOTIFICATION_TYPE notificationType)
{

    ADDRESS_FAMILY addressFamily; 
    SOCKADDR_IN sockv4addr;
    struct in_addr ipv4addr;
    
    // Ensure that this is the correct notification before setting gCallbackComplete
    // NOTE: Is there a stronger way to do this?
    if(notificationType == MibAddInstance) {
        printf("NotifyUnicastIpAddressChange received an Add instance\n");
        addressFamily = (ADDRESS_FAMILY) row->Address.si_family;
        switch (addressFamily) {
            case AF_INET:
                printf("\tAddressFamily: AF_INET\n");
                break;
            case AF_INET6:
                printf("\tAddressFamily: AF_INET6\n");
                break;
            default:    
                printf("\tAddressFamily: %d\n", addressFamily);
                break;
       }
       if (addressFamily == AF_INET) {
            sockv4addr = row->Address.Ipv4;
            ipv4addr = sockv4addr.sin_addr;
            printf("IPv4 address:  %s\n", inet_ntoa(ipv4addr) );
       }     
       if (callerContext != NULL)
           printf("Received a CallerContext value\n");
           
       SetEvent(gCallbackComplete);
    }    
    return;
}


Requirements

Minimum supported client

Windows Vista [desktop apps only]

Minimum supported server

Windows Server 2008 [desktop apps only]

Header

Netioapi.h (include Iphlpapi.h)

Library

Iphlpapi.lib

DLL

Iphlpapi.dll

See also

DeleteUnicastIpAddressEntry
GetUnicastIpAddressEntry
GetUnicastIpAddressTable
InitializeUnicastIpAddressEntry
IP Helper Function Reference
MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_ROW
MIB_UNICASTIPADDRESS_TABLE
Netsh.exe
NotifyAddrChange
NotifyIpInterfaceChange
NotifyUnicastIpAddressChange
SetUnicastIpAddressEntry

 

 

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