Export (0) Print
Expand All

Inserting Data Into a SQL Database

.NET Framework 1.1

The following code example shows how to add new rows of data to a database using a DataGrid control and a custom HTML form that accepts user input. This example demonstrates database security best practices by using parameter objects for user input, rather than using string concatenation. You can also add client-side or server-side input validation to prevent malformed or malicious input.

To see a similar example executed, run the DataGrid4.aspx sample in the ASP.NET QuickStart.

<%@ Import Namespace="System.Data" %>
<%@ Import Namespace="System.Data.SqlClient" %>
<%@ Import Namespace="System.Text"%>

<html>
<script language="VB" runat="server" >
   Dim MyConnection As SqlConnection

   Sub Page_Load(Src As Object, e As EventArgs)
      ' Create a connection to the "pubs" SQL database located on 
      ' the local computer.
      myConnection = New SqlConnection("server=localhost;" _ 
         & "database=pubs;Trusted_Connection=Yes")
      ' Check whether this page is a  postback. If it is not 
      ' a  postback, call a custom BindGrid function.
      If Not IsPostBack Then 
         BindGrid()
      End If
   End Sub

   ' Implement an AddAuthor_Click function. This function does some data 
   ' validation on the input form and builds a parameterized command containing 
   ' all the fields of the input form.  Then it executes this command to the 
   ' database and tests (using the try command) whether the data was added. 
   ' Finally, it rebinds the DataGrid to show the new data.
   Sub AddAuthor_Click(Sender As Object, e As EventArgs) 
      Dim myCommand As SqlCommand
      Dim insertCmd As String
      ' Check that four of the input values are not empty. If any of them
      '  is empty, show a message to the user and rebind the DataGrid.
      If (au_id.Value = "" Or au_fname.Value = "" Or au_lname.Value = "" _
         Or phone.Value = "") Then
         Message.InnerHtml = "ERROR: Null values not allowed for " _
            & "Author ID, Name or Phone"
         Message.Style("color") = "red"
         BindGrid()
         Exit Sub
      End If
      ' Build a SQL INSERT statement string for all the input-form
      ' field values.
      insertCmd = "insert into Authors values (@Id, @LName, @FName," _ 
         & "@Phone, @Address, @City, @State, @Zip, @Contract);"
      ' Initialize the SqlCommand with the new SQL string.
      myCommand = New SqlCommand(insertCmd, myConnection)
      ' Create new parameters for the SqlCommand object and
      ' initialize them to the input-form field values.
      myCommand.Parameters.Add(New SqlParameter("@Id", _
         SqlDbType.VarChar, 11))
      myCommand.Parameters("@Id").Value = au_id.Value
      myCommand.Parameters.Add(New SqlParameter("@LName", _
         SqlDbType.VarChar, 40))
      myCommand.Parameters("@LName").Value = au_lname.Value
      myCommand.Parameters.Add(New SqlParameter("@FName", _
         SqlDbType.VarChar, 20))
      myCommand.Parameters("@FName").Value = au_fname.Value
      myCommand.Parameters.Add(New SqlParameter("@Phone", _
         SqlDbType.Char, 12))
      myCommand.Parameters("@Phone").Value = phone.Value
      myCommand.Parameters.Add(New SqlParameter("@Address", _ 
         SqlDbType.VarChar, 40))
      myCommand.Parameters("@Address").Value = address.Value
      myCommand.Parameters.Add(New SqlParameter("@City", _
         SqlDbType.VarChar, 20))
      myCommand.Parameters("@City").Value = city.Value
      myCommand.Parameters.Add(New SqlParameter("@State", _
         SqlDbType.Char, 2))
      myCommand.Parameters("@State").Value = state.Value
      myCommand.Parameters.Add(New SqlParameter("@Zip", _
         SqlDbType.Char, 5))
      myCommand.Parameters("@Zip").Value = zip.Value
      myCommand.Parameters.Add(New SqlParameter("@Contract", _
         SqlDbType.VarChar,1))
      myCommand.Parameters("@Contract").Value = contract.Value
      myCommand.Connection.Open()
      ' Test whether the new row can be added and  display the 
      ' appropriate message box to the user.
      Try 
         myCommand.ExecuteNonQuery()
         Message.InnerHtml = "<b>Record Added</b><br>" & insertCmd
      Catch ex As SqlException
         If ex.Number = 2627 Then
            Message.InnerHtml = "ERROR: A record already exists with " _
               & "the same primary key"
         Else
            Message.InnerHtml = "ERROR: Could not add record, please " _
               & "ensure the fields are correctly filled out"
            Message.Style("color") = "red"
         End If
     End Try

     myCommand.Connection.Close()
     BindGrid()
   End Sub
    
   ' BindGrid connects to the database and implements a SQL 
   ' SELECT query to get all the data in the "Authors" table 
   ' of the database.
   Sub BindGrid() 
      Dim myConnection As SqlConnection
      Dim myCommand As SqlDataAdapter 
      ' Create a connection to the "pubs" SQL database located on 
      ' the local computer.
      myConnection = New SqlConnection("server=localhost;" _ 
         & "database=pubs;Trusted_Connection=Yes")
      ' Connect to the SQL database using a SQL SELECT query to get all 
      ' the data from the "Authors" table.
      myCommand = New SqlDataAdapter("SELECT * FROM authors", _
         myConnection)
      ' Create and fill a new DataSet.
      Dim ds As DataSet = New DataSet()
      myCommand.Fill(ds)
      ' Bind the DataGrid control to the DataSet.
      MyDataGrid.DataSource = ds
      MyDataGrid.DataBind()
   End Sub
</script>

<body style="font: 10pt verdana">
  <form runat="server">
    <h3><font face="Verdana">Inserting a Row of Data</font></h3>
    <table width="95%">
      <tr>
        <td valign="top">
          <ASP:DataGrid id="MyDataGrid" runat="server"
            Width="700"
            BackColor="#ccccff" 
            BorderColor="black"
            ShowFooter="false" 
            CellPadding=3 
            CellSpacing="0"
            Font-Name="Verdana"
            Font-Size="8pt"
            HeaderStyle-BackColor="#aaaadd"
            EnableViewState="false"
          />
        </td>
        <td valign="top">
          <table style="font: 8pt verdana">
            <tr>
              <td colspan="2" bgcolor="#aaaadd" style="font:10pt verdana">
                Add a New Author:</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
              <td nowrap>Author ID: </td>
              <td><input type="text" id="au_id" value="000-00-0000" 
                runat="server"></td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
              <td nowrap>Last Name: </td>
              <td><input type="text" id="au_lname" value="Doe" 
                runat="server"></td>
            </tr>  
            <tr nowrap>
              <td>First Name: </td>
              <td><input type="text" id="au_fname" value="John" 
                runat="server"></td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
              <td>Phone: </td>
              <td><input type="text" id="phone" value="808 555-5555" 
                runat="server"></td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
              <td>Address: </td>
              <td><input type="text" id="address" 
                value="One Microsoft Way" runat="server"></td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
              <td>City: </td>
              <td><input type="text" id="city" value="Redmond" 
                runat="server"></td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
              <td>State: </td>
              <td>
                <select id="state" runat="server">
                  <option>CA</option>
                  <option>IN</option>  
                  <option>KS</option>  
                  <option>MD</option>  
                  <option>MI</option>  
                  <option>OR</option> 
                  <option>TN</option>  
                  <option>UT</option>  
                </select>
              </td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
              <td nowrap>Zip Code: </td>
              <td><input type="text" id="zip" value="98005"
                 runat="server"></td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
              <td>Contract: </td>
              <td>
                <select id="contract" runat="server">
                  <option value="0">False</option>
                  <option value="1">True</option>
                </select>
              </td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
              <td></td>
              <td style="padding-top:15">
                <input type="submit" OnServerClick="AddAuthor_Click"
                  value="Add Author" runat="server">
              </td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
              <td colspan="2" style="padding-top:15" align="center">
                <span id="Message" EnableViewState="false" 
                  style="font: arial 11pt;" runat="server"/>
              </td>
            </tr>
          </table>
        </td>
      </tr>
    </table>
  </form>
</body>
</html>

[C#]
<%@ Import Namespace="System.Data" %>
<%@ Import Namespace="System.Data.SqlClient" %>
<%@ Import Namespace="System.Text"%>
<html>
<script language="C#" runat="server">
   SqlConnection myConnection;
   protected void Page_Load(Object Src, EventArgs E) 
   {
      // Create a connection to the "pubs" SQL database located on 
      // the local computer.
      myConnection = new SqlConnection("server=localhost;" +
         "database=pubs;Trusted_Connection=Yes");
      // Check to see  whether this page is a postback. If it is not 
      // a postback, call a custom BindGrid function.
      if (!IsPostBack) BindGrid();
   }
   // Implement an AddAuthor_Click function. This function does some data 
   // validation on the input form and builds a parameterized command containing 
   // all the fields of the input form.  Then it executes this command to the 
   // database and tests (using the try command) whether the data was added. 
   // Finally, it rebinds the DataGrid to show the new data.
   public void AddAuthor_Click(Object sender, EventArgs E) 
   {
      // Check that four of the input values are not empty. If any of them
      // is empty, show a message to the user and rebind the DataGrid.
      if (au_id.Value == "" || au_fname.Value == "" || 
         au_lname.Value == "" || phone.Value == "") 
      {
         Message.InnerHtml = "ERROR: Null values not allowed for" +
            " Author ID, Name or Phone";
         Message.Style["color"] = "red";
         BindGrid();
         return;
      }
      // Build a SQL Insert statement string for all the input-form
      // field values.      
      String insertCmd = "insert into Authors values (@Id," +
         " @LName, @FName, @Phone, @Address, @City, @State," + 
         " @Zip, @Contract)";
      // Initialize the SqlCommand with the new SQL string 
      // and the connection information.
      SqlCommand myCommand = new SqlCommand(insertCmd, myConnection);
      // Create new parameters for the SqlCommand object and
      // initialize them to the input-form field values.
      myCommand.Parameters.Add(new SqlParameter("@Id",
         SqlDbType.VarChar, 11));
      myCommand.Parameters["@Id"].Value = au_id.Value;
         myCommand.Parameters.Add(new SqlParameter("@LName", 
         SqlDbType.VarChar, 40));
      myCommand.Parameters["@LName"].Value = au_lname.Value;
         myCommand.Parameters.Add(new SqlParameter("@FName", 
         SqlDbType.VarChar, 20));
      myCommand.Parameters["@FName"].Value = au_fname.Value;
         myCommand.Parameters.Add(new SqlParameter("@Phone", 
         SqlDbType.Char, 12));
      myCommand.Parameters["@Phone"].Value = phone.Value;
      myCommand.Parameters.Add(new SqlParameter("@Address", 
         SqlDbType.VarChar, 40));
      myCommand.Parameters["@Address"].Value = address.Value;
      myCommand.Parameters.Add(new SqlParameter("@City", 
         SqlDbType.VarChar, 20));
      myCommand.Parameters["@City"].Value = city.Value;
      myCommand.Parameters.Add(new SqlParameter("@State", 
         SqlDbType.Char, 2));
      myCommand.Parameters["@State"].Value = state.Value;
      myCommand.Parameters.Add(new SqlParameter("@Zip", 
         SqlDbType.Char, 5));
      myCommand.Parameters["@Zip"].Value = zip.Value;
      myCommand.Parameters.Add(new SqlParameter("@Contract", 
         SqlDbType.VarChar,1));
      myCommand.Parameters["@Contract"].Value = contract.Value;
      myCommand.Connection.Open();
      // Test whether the new row can be added and  display the 
      // appropriate message box to the user.
      try 
      {
         myCommand.ExecuteNonQuery();
         Message.InnerHtml = "<b>Record Added</b><br>" + insertCmd;
      }
      catch (SqlException e) 
      {
         if (e.Number == 2627)
            Message.InnerHtml = "ERROR: A record already exists with" +
               " the same primary key";
         else
            Message.InnerHtml = "ERROR: Could not add record, please " +
              " ensure the fields are correctly filled out";
            Message.Style["color"] = "red";
      }
      myCommand.Connection.Close();
      BindGrid();
   }
   // BindGrid connects to the database and implements a SQL
   // SELECT query to get all the data in the "Authors" table 
   // of the database.
   public void BindGrid() 
   {
      //  Create a connection to the "pubs" SQL database located on 
      // the local computer.
      SqlConnection myConnection = new SqlConnection("server=localhost;" +
         "database=pubs;Trusted_Connection=Yes");
      // Connect to the database with a SELECT query on the 
      // "Authors" table.
      SqlDataAdapter myCommand = new SqlDataAdapter("SELECT * FROM" +
         " Authors", myConnection);
      // Create and fill a new DataSet.
      DataSet ds = new DataSet();
      myCommand.Fill(ds);
      // Bind MyDataGrid to the DataSet.
      MyDataGrid.DataSource=ds;
      MyDataGrid.DataBind();
   }
</script>

<%-- Display the DataGrid in the body of the page, and 
   create and display the input form. --%>
<body style="font: 10pt verdana">
   <form runat="server">
      <h3><font face="Verdana">Inserting a Row of Data</font></h3>
      <table width="95%">
         <tr>
            <td valign="top">
               <%-- Put the DataGrid in the first column. --%>
               <ASP:DataGrid id="MyDataGrid" runat="server"
                  Width="700"
                  BackColor="#ccccff" 
                  BorderColor="black"
                  ShowFooter="false" 
                  CellPadding=3 
                  CellSpacing="0"
                  Font-Name="Verdana"
                  Font-Size="8pt"
                  HeaderStyle-BackColor="#aaaadd"
                  EnableViewState="false"
               />
            </td>
            <%-- Create a second table column. --%>
            <td valign="top">
               <%-- Put the input form (a second table) in the second 
                  column. --%>
               <table style="font: 8pt verdana">
                  <tr>
                     <td colspan="2" bgcolor="#aaaadd" 
                        style="font:10pt verdana">
                        Add a New Author:
                     </td>
                  </tr>
                  <tr>
                     <td nowrap>Author ID:</td>
                     <td><input type="text" id="au_id" value="000-00-0000"
                        runat="server"></td>
                  </tr>
                  <tr>
                     <td nowrap>Last Name:</td>
                     <td><input type="text" id="au_lname" value="Doe" 
                        runat="server"></td>
                  </tr>  
                  <tr nowrap>
                     <td>First Name:</td>
                     <td><input type="text" id="au_fname" value="John"
                        runat="server"></td>
                  </tr>
                  <tr>
                     <td>Phone: </td>
                     <td>
                        <input type="text" id="phone" value="808 555-5555"
                           runat="server">
                     </td>
                  </tr>
                  <tr>
                     <td>Address:</td>
                     <td>
                        <input type="text" id="address" value =
                           "One Microsoft Way" runat="server">
                     </td>
                  </tr>
                  <tr>
                     <td>City:</td>
                     <td><input type="text" id="city" value="Redmond"
                        runat="server"></td>
                  </tr>
                  <tr>
                     <td>State: </td>
                     <td>
                        <select id="state" runat="server">
                           <option>CA</option>
                           <option>IN</option>  
                           <option>KS</option>  
                           <option>MD</option>  
                           <option>MI</option>  
                           <option>OR</option> 
                           <option>TN</option>  
                           <option>UT</option>  
                        </select>
                     </td>
                  </tr>
                  <tr>
                     <td nowrap>Zip Code:</td>
                     <td><input type="text" id="zip" value="98005"
                        runat="server"></td>
                  </tr>
                  <tr>
                     <td>Contract: </td>
                     <td>
                        <select id="contract" runat="server">
                           <option value="0">False</option>
                           <option value="1">True</option>
                        </select>
                     </td>
                  </tr>
                  <tr>
                     <td></td>
                     <td style="padding-top:15">
                        <input type="submit" OnServerClick=
                           "AddAuthor_Click" value="Add Author" 
                           runat="server">
                     </td>
                  </tr>
                  <tr>
                     <td colspan="2" style="padding-top:15"
                        align="center">
                        <span id="Message" EnableViewState="false"
                           style="font: arial 11pt;" runat="server"/>
                     </td>
                  </tr>
               </table>
            </td>
         </tr>
      </table>
   </form>
</body>
</html>

See Also

Accessing Data with ASP.NET | Accessing Data with ADO.NET | System.Web.UI.WebControls Namespace | DataGrid Class

Show:
© 2014 Microsoft