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Message Security over Message Queuing

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This sample demonstrates how to implement an application that uses WS-Security with X.509v3 certificate authentication for the client and requires server authentication using the server's X.509v3 certificate over MSMQ. Message security is sometimes more desirable to ensure that the messages in the MSMQ store stay encrypted and the application can perform its own authentication of the message.

Aa395200.Important(en-us,VS.90).gif Note:
The WCF samples may already be installed on your machine. Check this (default) directory before continuing: <InstallDrive>:\Samples\WCFWFCardspaceIf this directory doesn’t exist, click the download sample link at the top of this page. Note that this will download and install all of the WF, WCF, and CardSpace samples, you will only have to do this once. The sample is located in the following directory <InstallDrive>:\Samples\WCFWFCardSpace\WCF\Basic\Binding\Net\Msmq\MessageSecurity.

This sample is based on the Transacted MSMQ Binding sample. The messages are encrypted and signed.

To set up, build, and run the sample

  1. Ensure that you have performed the One-Time Set Up Procedure for the Windows Communication Foundation Samples.

  2. To build the C# or Visual Basic .NET edition of the solution, follow the instructions in Building the Windows Communication Foundation Samples.

To run the sample on the same machine

  1. Ensure that the path includes the folder that contains Makecert.exe and FindPrivateKey.exe.

  2. Run Setup.bat from the sample install folder. This installs all the certificates required for running the sample.

    Aa395200.note(en-us,VS.90).gifNote:
    Ensure that you remove the certificates by running Cleanup.bat when you have finished with the sample. Other security samples use the same certificates.

  3. Launch Service.exe from \service\bin.

  4. Launch Client.exe from \client\bin. Client activity is displayed on the client console application.

  5. If the client and service are not able to communicate, see Troubleshooting Tips for WCF Samples.

To run the sample across machines

  1. Copy the Setup.bat, Cleanup.bat, and ImportClientCert.bat files to the service machine.

  2. Create a directory on the client machine for the client binaries.

  3. Copy the client program files to the client directory on the client machine. Also copy the Setup.bat, Cleanup.bat, and ImportServiceCert.bat files to the client.

  4. On the server, run setup.bat service. Running setup.bat with the service argument creates a service certificate with the fully-qualified domain name of the machine and exports the service certificate to a file named Service.cer.

  5. Edit service's service.exe.config to reflect the new certificate name (in the findValue attribute in the serviceCertificate element of serviceCredentials) which is the same as the fully-qualified domain name of the machine.

  6. Copy the Service.cer file from the service directory to the client directory on the client machine.

  7. On the client, run setup.bat client. Running setup.bat with the client argument creates a client certificate named client.com and exports the client certificate to a file named Client.cer.

  8. In the Client.exe.config file on the client machine, change the address value of the endpoint to match the new address of your service. Do this by replacing localhost with the fully-qualified domain name of the server. You must also change the certificate name of the service to be the same as the fully-qualified domain name of the service machine (in the findValue attribute in the defaultCertificate element of serviceCertificate under clientCredentials).

  9. Copy the Client.cer file from the client directory to the service directory on the server.

  10. On the client, run ImportServiceCert.bat. This imports the service certificate from the Service.cer file into the CurrentUser - TrustedPeople store.

  11. On the server, run ImportClientCert.bat, This imports the client certificate from the Client.cer file into the LocalMachine - TrustedPeople store.

  12. On the service machine, launch Service.exe from the command prompt.

  13. On the client machine, launch Client.exe from the command prompt. If the client and service are not able to communicate, see Troubleshooting Tips for WCF Samples.

To clean up after the sample

  • Run Cleanup.bat in the samples folder once you have finished running the sample.

    Aa395200.note(en-us,VS.90).gifNote:
    This script does not remove service certificates on a client when running this sample across machines. If you have run Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) samples that use certificates across machines, be sure to clear the service certificates that have been installed in the CurrentUser - TrustedPeople store. To do this, use the following command: certmgr -del -r CurrentUser -s TrustedPeople -c -n <Fully Qualified Server Machine Name> For example: certmgr -del -r CurrentUser -s TrustedPeople -c -n server1.contoso.com.

Requirements

This sample requires that MSMQ is installed and running.

Demonstrates

The client encrypts the message using the public key of the service and signs the message using its own certificate. The service reading the message from the queue authenticates the client certificate with the certificate in its trusted people store. It then decrypts the message and dispatches the message to the service operation.

Because the Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) message is carried as a payload in the body of the MSMQ message, the body remains encrypted in the MSMQ store. This secures the message from unwanted disclosure of the message. Note that MSMQ itself is not aware whether the message it is carrying is encrypted.

The sample demonstrates how mutual authentication at the message level can be used with MSMQ. The certificates are exchanged out-of-band. This is always the case with queued application because the service and the client do not have to be up and running at the same time.

Description

The sample client and service code are the same as the Transacted MSMQ Binding sample with one difference. The operation contract is annotated with protection level, which suggests that the message must be signed and encrypted.

    // Define a service contract. 
    [ServiceContract(Namespace="http://Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples")]
    public interface IOrderProcessor
    {
        [OperationContract(IsOneWay = true, ProtectionLevel=ProtectionLevel.EncryptAndSign)]
        void SubmitPurchaseOrder(PurchaseOrder po);
    }

To ensure that the message is secured using the required token to identify the service and client, the App.config contains credential information.

The client configuration specifies the service certificate to authenticate the service. It uses its local machine store as the trusted store to rely on the validity of the service. It also specifies the client certificate that is attached with the message for service authentication of the client.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<configuration>

  <system.serviceModel>

    <client>
      <!-- Define NetMsmqEndpoint -->
      <endpoint address="net.msmq://localhost/private/ServiceModelSamplesMessageSecurity" 
                binding="netMsmqBinding" 
                bindingConfiguration="messageSecurityBinding"
                contract="Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples.IOrderProcessor"
                behaviorConfiguration="ClientCertificateBehavior" />
    </client>

    <bindings>
        <netMsmqBinding>
            <binding name="messageSecurityBinding">
                <security mode="Message">
                    <message clientCredentialType="Certificate"/>
                </security>
            </binding>
        </netMsmqBinding>
    </bindings>

    <behaviors>
      <endpointBehaviors>
        <behavior name="ClientCertificateBehavior">
          <!-- 
        The clientCredentials behavior allows one to define a certificate to present to a service.
        A certificate is used by a client to authenticate itself to the service and provide message integrity.
        This configuration references the "client.com" certificate installed during the setup instructions.
        -->
          <clientCredentials>
            <clientCertificate findValue="client.com" storeLocation="CurrentUser" storeName="My" x509FindType="FindBySubjectName" />
            <serviceCertificate>
                <defaultCertificate findValue="localhost" storeLocation="CurrentUser" storeName="TrustedPeople" x509FindType="FindBySubjectName"/>
              <!-- 
            Setting the certificateValidationMode to PeerOrChainTrust means that if the certificate 
            is in the user's Trusted People store, then it is trusted without performing a
            validation of the certificate's issuer chain. This setting is used here for convenience so that the 
            sample can be run without having to have certificates issued by a certificate authority (CA).
            This setting is less secure than the default, ChainTrust. The security implications of this 
            setting should be carefully considered before using PeerOrChainTrust in production code. 
            -->
              <authentication certificateValidationMode="PeerOrChainTrust" />
            </serviceCertificate>
          </clientCredentials>
        </behavior>
      </endpointBehaviors>
    </behaviors>

  </system.serviceModel>
</configuration>

Note that the security mode is set to Message and the ClientCredentialType is set to Certificate.

The service configuration includes a service behavior that specifies the service's credentials that are used when the client authenticates the service. The server certificate subject name is specified in the findValue attribute in the serviceCredentials element.


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<configuration>

  <appSettings>
    <!-- Use appSetting to configure MSMQ queue name. -->
    <add key="queueName" value=".\private$\ServiceModelSamplesMessageSecurity" />
  </appSettings>

  <system.serviceModel>
    <services>
      <service 
          name="Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples.OrderProcessorService"
          behaviorConfiguration="PurchaseOrderServiceBehavior">
        <host>
          <baseAddresses>
            <add baseAddress="http://localhost:8000/ServiceModelSamples/service"/>
          </baseAddresses>
        </host>
        <!-- Define NetMsmqEndpoint -->
        <endpoint address="net.msmq://localhost/private/ServiceModelSamplesMessageSecurity"
                  binding="netMsmqBinding"
                  bindingConfiguration="messageSecurityBinding"
                  contract="Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples.IOrderProcessor" />
        <!-- The mex endpoint is exposed at http://localhost:8000/ServiceModelSamples/service/mex. -->
        <endpoint address="mex"
                  binding="mexHttpBinding"
                  contract="IMetadataExchange" />
      </service>
    </services>

    <bindings>
        <netMsmqBinding>
            <binding name="messageSecurityBinding">
                <security mode="Message">
                    <message clientCredentialType="Certificate" />
                </security>
            </binding>
        </netMsmqBinding>
    </bindings>

    <behaviors>
      <serviceBehaviors>
        <behavior name="PurchaseOrderServiceBehavior">
          <serviceMetadata httpGetEnabled="True"/>
          <!-- 
               The serviceCredentials behavior allows one to define a service certificate.
               A service certificate is used by the service to authenticate itself to its clients and to provide message protection.
               This configuration references the "localhost" certificate installed during the setup instructions.
          -->
          <serviceCredentials>
            <serviceCertificate findValue="localhost" storeLocation="LocalMachine" storeName="My" x509FindType="FindBySubjectName" />
            <clientCertificate>
                <certificate findValue="client.com" storeLocation="LocalMachine" storeName="TrustedPeople" x509FindType="FindBySubjectName"/>
              <!-- 
            Setting the certificateValidationMode to PeerOrChainTrust means that if the certificate 
            is in the user's Trusted People store, then it is trusted without performing a
            validation of the certificate's issuer chain. This setting is used here for convenience so that the 
            sample can be run without having to have certificates issued by a certificate authority (CA).
            This setting is less secure than the default, ChainTrust. The security implications of this 
            setting should be carefully considered before using PeerOrChainTrust in production code. 
            -->
              <authentication certificateValidationMode="PeerOrChainTrust" />
            </clientCertificate>
          </serviceCredentials>
        </behavior>
      </serviceBehaviors>
    </behaviors>

  </system.serviceModel>

</configuration>

The sample demonstrates controlling authentication using configuration, and how to obtain the caller’s identity from the security context, as shown in the following sample code:

    // Service class which implements the service contract.
    // Added code to write output to the console window.
    public class OrderProcessorService : IOrderProcessor
    {
        private string GetCallerIdentity()
        {
            // The client certificate is not mapped to a Windows identity by default.
            // ServiceSecurityContext.PrimaryIdentity is populated based on the information
            // in the certificate that the client used to authenticate itself to the service.
            return ServiceSecurityContext.Current.PrimaryIdentity.Name;
        }

        [OperationBehavior(TransactionScopeRequired = true, TransactionAutoComplete = true)]
        public void SubmitPurchaseOrder(PurchaseOrder po)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Client's Identity {0} ", GetCallerIdentity());
            Orders.Add(po);
            Console.WriteLine("Processing {0} ", po);
        }
  //…
}

When run, the service code displays the client identification. The following is a sample output from the service code:

The service is ready.
Press <ENTER> to terminate service.

Client's Identity CN=client.com; ECA6629A3C695D01832D77EEE836E04891DE9D3C
Processing Purchase Order: 6536e097-da96-4773-9da3-77bab4345b5d
        Customer: somecustomer.com
        OrderDetails
                Order LineItem: 54 of Blue Widget @unit price: $29.99
                Order LineItem: 890 of Red Widget @unit price: $45.89
        Total cost of this order: $42461.56
        Order status: Pending

Comments

  • Creating the client certificate.

    The following line in the batch file creates the client certificate. The client name specified is used in the subject name of the certificate created. The certificate is stored in My store at the CurrentUser store location.

    echo ************
    echo making client cert
    echo ************
    makecert.exe -sr CurrentUser -ss MY -a sha1 -n CN=%CLIENT_NAME% -sky exchange -pe
    
    
  • Installing the client certificate into server’s trusted certificate store.

    The following line in the batch file copies the client certificate into the server's TrustedPeople store so that the server can make the relevant trust or no-trust decisions. For a certificate installed in the TrustedPeople store to be trusted by a Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) service, the client certificate validation mode must be set to PeerOrChainTrust or PeerTrust value. See the previous service configuration sample to learn how this can be done using a configuration file.

    echo ************
    echo copying client cert to server's LocalMachine store
    echo ************
    certmgr.exe -add -r CurrentUser -s My -c -n %CLIENT_NAME% -r LocalMachine -s TrustedPeople 
    
    
  • Creating the server certificate.

    The following lines from the Setup.bat batch file create the server certificate to be used:

    echo ************
    echo Server cert setup starting
    echo %SERVER_NAME%
    echo ************
    echo making server cert
    echo ************
    makecert.exe -sr LocalMachine -ss MY -a sha1 -n CN=%SERVER_NAME% -sky exchange -pe
    
    The %SERVER_NAME% variable specifies the server name. The certificate is stored in the LocalMachine store. If the setup batch file is run with an argument of service (such as, setup.bat service) the %SERVER_NAME% contains the fully-qualified domain name of the computer. Otherwise it defaults to localhost

  • Installing server certificate into the client’s trusted certificate store.

    The following line copies the server certificate into the client trusted people store. This step is required because certificates generated by Makecert.exe are not implicitly trusted by the client system. If you already have a certificate that is rooted in a client trusted root certificate—for example, a Microsoft-issued certificate—this step of populating the client certificate store with the server certificate is not required.

    certmgr.exe -add -r LocalMachine -s My -c -n %SERVER_NAME% -r CurrentUser -s TrustedPeople
    
    Aa395200.note(en-us,VS.90).gifNote:
    If you are using a non-U.S. English edition of Microsoft Windows you must edit the Setup.bat file and replace the "NT AUTHORITY\NETWORK SERVICE" account name with your regional equivalent.


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