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SendARP function

The SendARP function sends an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) request to obtain the physical address that corresponds to the specified destination IPv4 address.

Syntax


DWORD SendARP(
  _In_     IPAddr DestIP,
  _In_     IPAddr SrcIP,
  _Out_    PULONG pMacAddr,
  _Inout_  PULONG PhyAddrLen
);

Parameters

DestIP [in]

The destination IPv4 address, in the form of an IPAddr structure. The ARP request attempts to obtain the physical address that corresponds to this IPv4 address.

SrcIP [in]

The source IPv4 address of the sender, in the form of an IPAddr structure. This parameter is optional and is used to select the interface to send the request on for the ARP entry. The caller may specify zero corresponding to the INADDR_ANY IPv4 address for this parameter.

pMacAddr [out]

A pointer to an array of ULONG variables. This array must have at least two ULONG elements to hold an Ethernet or token ring physical address. The first six bytes of this array receive the physical address that corresponds to the IPv4 address specified by the DestIP parameter.

PhyAddrLen [in, out]

On input, a pointer to a ULONG value that specifies the maximum buffer size, in bytes, the application has set aside to receive the physical address or MAC address. The buffer size should be at least 6 bytes for an Ethernet or token ring physical address

The buffer to receive the physical address is pointed to by the pMacAddr parameter.

On successful output, this parameter points to a value that specifies the number of bytes written to the buffer pointed to by the pMacAddr.

Return value

If the function succeeds, the return value is NO_ERROR.

If the function fails, the return value is one of the following error codes.

Return codeDescription
ERROR_BAD_NET_NAME

The network name cannot be found. This error is returned on Windows Vista and later when an ARP reply to the SendARP request was not received. This error occurs if the destination IPv4 address could not be reached because it is not on the same subnet or the destination computer is not operating.

ERROR_BUFFER_OVERFLOW

The file name is too long. This error is returned on Windows Vista if the ULONG value pointed to by the PhyAddrLen parameter is less than 6, the size required to store a complete physical address.

ERROR_GEN_FAILURE

A device attached to the system is not functioning. This error is returned on Windows Server 2003 and earlier when an ARP reply to the SendARP request was not received. This error can occur if destination IPv4 address could not be reached because it is not on the same subnet or the destination computer is not operating.

ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER

One of the parameters is invalid. This error is returned on Windows Server 2003 and earlier if either the pMacAddr or PhyAddrLen parameter is a NULL pointer.

ERROR_INVALID_USER_BUFFER

The supplied user buffer is not valid for the requested operation. This error is returned on Windows Server 2003 and earlier if the ULONG value pointed to by the PhyAddrLen parameter is zero.

ERROR_NOT_FOUND

Element not found. This error is returned on Windows Vista if the the SrcIp parameter does not specify a source IPv4 address on an interface on the local computer or the INADDR_ANY IP address (an IPv4 address of 0.0.0.0).

ERROR_NOT_SUPPORTED

The SendARP function is not supported by the operating system running on the local computer.

Other

If the function fails, use FormatMessage to obtain the message string for the returned error.

 

Remarks

The SendARP function is used to request the physical hardware address (sometimes referred to as the MAC address) that corresponds to a specified destination IPv4 address. If the information requested is not in the ARP table on the local computer, then the SendARP function will cause an ARP request to be sent to obtain the physical address. If the function is successful, the physical address that corresponds to the specified destination IPv4 address is returned in the array pointed to by the pMacAddr parameter.

The physical address of an IPv4 address is only available if the destination IPv4 address is on the local subnet (the IPv4 address can be reached directly without going through any routers). The SendARP function will fail if the destination IPv4 address is not on the local subnet.

If the SendARP function is successful on Windows Vista and later, the ARP table on the local computer is updated with the results. If the SendARP function is successful on Windows Server 2003 and earlier, the ARP table on the local computer is not affected.

The SendARP function on Windows Vista and later returns different error return values than the SendARP function on Windows Server 2003 and earlier.

On Windows Vista and later, a NULL pointer passed as the pMacAddr or PhyAddrLen parameter to the SendARP function causes an access violation and the application is terminated. If an error occurs on Windows Vista and later and ERROR_BAD_NET_NAME, ERROR_BUFFER_OVERFLOW, or ERROR_NOT_FOUND is returned, the ULONG value pointed to by the PhyAddrLen parameter is set to zero. If the ULONG value pointed to by the PhyAddrLen parameter is less than 6 on Windows Vista and later, SendARP function returns ERROR_BUFFER_OVERFLOW indicating the buffer to receive the physical address is too small. If the SrcIp parameter specifies an IPv4 address that is not an interface on the local computer, the SendARP function on Windows Vista and later returns ERROR_NOT_FOUND.

On Windows Server 2003 and earlier, a NULL pointer passed as the pMacAddr or PhyAddrLen parameter to the SendARP function returns ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER. If an error occurs on Windows Server 2003 and earlier and ERROR_GEN_FAILURE or ERROR_INVALID_USER_BUFFER is returned, the ULONG value pointed to by the PhyAddrLen parameter is set to zero. If the ULONG value pointed to by the PhyAddrLen parameter is less than 6 on Windows Server 2003 and earlier, the SendARP function does not return an error but only returns part of the hardware address in the array pointed to by the pMacAddr parameter. So if the value pointed to by the PhyAddrLen parameter is 4, then only the first 4 bytes of the hardware address are returned in the array pointed to by the pMacAddr parameter. If the SrcIp parameter specifies an IPv4 address that is not an interface on the local computer, the SendARP function on Windows Server 2003 and earlier ignores the SrcIp parameter and uses an IPv4 address on the local computer for the source IPv4 address.

The GetIpNetTable function retrieves the ARP table on the local computer that maps IPv4 addresses to physical addresses. The CreateIpNetEntry function creates an ARP entry in the ARP table on the local computer. The DeleteIpNetEntry function deletes an ARP entry from the ARP table on the local computer. The SetIpNetEntry function modifies an existing ARP entry in the ARP table on the local computer. The FlushIpNetTable function deletes all ARP entries for the specified interface from the ARP table on the local computer.

On Windows Vista and later, the ResolveIpNetEntry2 function can used to replace the SendARP function. An ARP request is sent if the Address member of the MIB_IPNET_ROW2 structure passed to the ResolveIpNetEntry2 function is an IPv4 address.

On Windows Vista, a new group of functions can be used to access, modify, and delete the ARP table entries when the Address member of the MIB_IPNET_ROW2 structure passed to these functions is an IPv4 address. The new functions include the following: GetIpNetTable2, CreateIpNetEntry2, DeleteIpNetEntry2, FlushIpNetTable2, and SetIpNetEntry2.

For information about the IPAddr data type, see Windows Data Types. To convert an IP address between dotted decimal notation and IPAddr format, use the inet_addr and inet_ntoa functions.

Examples

The following code demonstrates how to obtain the hardware or media access control (MAC) address associated with a specified IPv4 address.


#ifndef WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN
#define WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN
#endif

#include <winsock2.h>
#include <iphlpapi.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#pragma comment(lib, "iphlpapi.lib")
#pragma comment(lib, "ws2_32.lib")

void usage(char *pname)
{
    printf("Usage: %s [options] ip-address\n", pname);
    printf("\t -h \t\thelp\n");
    printf("\t -l length \tMAC physical address length to set\n");
    printf("\t -s src-ip \tsource IP address\n");
    exit(1);
}

int __cdecl main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    DWORD dwRetVal;
    IPAddr DestIp = 0;
    IPAddr SrcIp = 0;       /* default for src ip */
    ULONG MacAddr[2];       /* for 6-byte hardware addresses */
    ULONG PhysAddrLen = 6;  /* default to length of six bytes */

    char *DestIpString = NULL;
    char *SrcIpString = NULL;

    BYTE *bPhysAddr;
    unsigned int i;

    if (argc > 1) {
        for (i = 1; i < (unsigned int) argc; i++) {
            if ((argv[i][0] == '-') || (argv[i][0] == '/')) {
                switch (tolower(argv[i][1])) {
                case 'l':
                    PhysAddrLen = (ULONG) atol(argv[++i]);
                    break;
                case 's':
                    SrcIpString = argv[++i];
                    SrcIp = inet_addr(SrcIpString);
                    break;
                case 'h':
                default:
                    usage(argv[0]);
                    break;
                }               /* end switch */
            } else
                DestIpString = argv[i];
        }                       /* end for */
    } else
        usage(argv[0]);

    if (DestIpString == NULL || DestIpString[0] == '\0')
        usage(argv[0]);

    DestIp = inet_addr(DestIpString);

    memset(&MacAddr, 0xff, sizeof (MacAddr));

    printf("Sending ARP request for IP address: %s\n", DestIpString);

    dwRetVal = SendARP(DestIp, SrcIp, &MacAddr, &PhysAddrLen);

    if (dwRetVal == NO_ERROR) {
        bPhysAddr = (BYTE *) & MacAddr;
        if (PhysAddrLen) {
            for (i = 0; i < (int) PhysAddrLen; i++) {
                if (i == (PhysAddrLen - 1))
                    printf("%.2X\n", (int) bPhysAddr[i]);
                else
                    printf("%.2X-", (int) bPhysAddr[i]);
            }
        } else
            printf
                ("Warning: SendArp completed successfully, but returned length=0\n");

    } else {
        printf("Error: SendArp failed with error: %d", dwRetVal);
        switch (dwRetVal) {
        case ERROR_GEN_FAILURE:
            printf(" (ERROR_GEN_FAILURE)\n");
            break;
        case ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER:
            printf(" (ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER)\n");
            break;
        case ERROR_INVALID_USER_BUFFER:
            printf(" (ERROR_INVALID_USER_BUFFER)\n");
            break;
        case ERROR_BAD_NET_NAME:
            printf(" (ERROR_GEN_FAILURE)\n");
            break;
        case ERROR_BUFFER_OVERFLOW:
            printf(" (ERROR_BUFFER_OVERFLOW)\n");
            break;
        case ERROR_NOT_FOUND:
            printf(" (ERROR_NOT_FOUND)\n");
            break;
        default:
            printf("\n");
            break;
        }
    }

    return 0;
}



Requirements

Minimum supported client

Windows 2000 Professional [desktop apps only]

Minimum supported server

Windows 2000 Server [desktop apps only]

Header

Iphlpapi.h

Library

Iphlpapi.lib

DLL

Iphlpapi.dll

See also

IPAddr
IP Helper Start Page
IP Helper Function Reference
CreateIpNetEntry
CreateIpNetEntry2
CreateProxyArpEntry
DeleteIpNetEntry
DeleteIpNetEntry2
DeleteProxyArpEntry
FlushIpNetTable
FlushIpNetTable2
GetIpNetEntry2
GetIpNetTable2
ResolveIpNetEntry2
SetIpNetEntry
SetIpNetEntry2

 

 

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