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IcmpSendEcho2 function

The IcmpSendEcho2 function sends an IPv4 ICMP echo request and returns either immediately (if Event or ApcRoutine is non-NULL) or returns after the specified time-out. The ReplyBuffer contains the ICMP echo responses, if any.

Syntax


DWORD WINAPI IcmpSendEcho2(
  _In_      HANDLE IcmpHandle,
  _In_opt_  HANDLE Event,
  _In_opt_  PIO_APC_ROUTINE ApcRoutine,
  _In_opt_  PVOID ApcContext,
  _In_      IPAddr DestinationAddress,
  _In_      LPVOID RequestData,
  _In_      WORD RequestSize,
  _In_opt_  PIP_OPTION_INFORMATION RequestOptions,
  _Out_     LPVOID ReplyBuffer,
  _In_      DWORD ReplySize,
  _In_      DWORD Timeout
);

Parameters

IcmpHandle [in]

The open handle returned by the ICMPCreateFile function.

Event [in, optional]

An event to be signaled whenever an ICMP response arrives. If this parameter is specified, it requires a handle to a valid event object. Use the CreateEvent or CreateEventEx function to create this event object.

For more information on using events, see Event Objects.

ApcRoutine [in, optional]

The routine that is called when the calling thread is in an alertable thread and an ICMPv4 reply arrives. On Windows Vista and later, PIO_APC_ROUTINE_DEFINED must be defined to force the datatype for this parameter to PIO_APC_ROUTINE rather than FARPROC.

On Windows Server 2003, Windows XP , and Windows 2000, PIO_APC_ROUTINE_DEFINED must not be defined to force the datatype for this parameter to FARPROC.

ApcContext [in, optional]

An optional parameter passed to the callback routine specified in the ApcRoutine parameter whenever an ICMP response arrives or an error occurs.

DestinationAddress [in]

The IPv4 destination of the echo request, in the form of an IPAddr structure.

RequestData [in]

A pointer to a buffer that contains data to send in the request.

RequestSize [in]

The size, in bytes, of the request data buffer pointed to by the RequestData parameter.

RequestOptions [in, optional]

A pointer to the IP header options for the request, in the form of an IP_OPTION_INFORMATION structure. On a 64-bit platform, this parameter is in the form for an IP_OPTION_INFORMATION32 structure.

This parameter may be NULL if no IP header options need to be specified.

ReplyBuffer [out]

A pointer to a buffer to hold any replies to the request. Upon return, the buffer contains an array of ICMP_ECHO_REPLY structures followed by options and data. The buffer must be large enough to hold at least one ICMP_ECHO_REPLY structure plus RequestSize bytes of data. On a 64-bit platform, upon return the buffer contains an array of ICMP_ECHO_REPLY32 structures followed by the options and data for the replies.

This buffer should also be large enough to also hold 8 more bytes of data (the size of an ICMP error message) plus space for an IO_STATUS_BLOCK structure.

ReplySize [in]

The allocated size, in bytes, of the reply buffer. The buffer should be large enough to hold at least one ICMP_ECHO_REPLY structure plus RequestSize bytes of data. On a 64-bit platform, The buffer should be large enough to hold at least one ICMP_ECHO_REPLY32 structure plus RequestSize bytes of data.

This buffer should also be large enough to also hold 8 more bytes of data (the size of an ICMP error message) plus space for an IO_STATUS_BLOCK structure.

Timeout [in]

The time, in milliseconds, to wait for replies.

Return value

When called synchronously, the IcmpSendEcho2 function returns the number of replies received and stored in ReplyBuffer. If the return value is zero, call GetLastError for extended error information.

When called asynchronously, the IcmpSendEcho2 function returns ERROR_IO_PENDING to indicate the operation is in progress. The results can be retrieved later when the event specified in the Event parameter signals or the callback function in the ApcRoutine parameter is called.

If the return value is zero, call GetLastError for extended error information.

If the function fails, the extended error code returned by GetLastError can be one of the following values.

Return codeDescription
ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER

An invalid parameter was passed to the function. This error is returned if the IcmpHandle parameter contains an invalid handle. This error can also be returned if the ReplySize parameter specifies a value less than the size of an ICMP_ECHO_REPLY or ICMP_ECHO_REPLY32 structure.

ERROR_IO_PENDING

The operation is in progress. This value is returned by a successful asynchronous call to IcmpSendEcho2 and is not an indication of an error.

ERROR_NOT_ENOUGH_MEMORY

Not enough memory is available to complete the operation.

ERROR_NOT_SUPPORTED

The request is not supported. This error is returned if no IPv4 stack is on the local computer.

IP_BUF_TOO_SMALL

The size of the ReplyBuffer specified in the ReplySize parameter was too small.

Other

Use FormatMessage to obtain the message string for the returned error.

 

Remarks

The IcmpSendEcho2 function is called synchronously if the ApcRoutine or Event parameters are NULL. When called synchronously, the return value contains the number of replies received and stored in ReplyBuffer after waiting for the time specified in the Timeout parameter. If the return value is zero, call GetLastError for extended error information.

The IcmpSendEcho2 function is called asynchronously when either the ApcRoutine or Event parameters are specified. When called asynchronously, the ReplyBuffer and ReplySize parameters are required to accept the response. ICMP response data is copied to the ReplyBuffer provided and the application is signaled (when the Event parameter is specified) or the callback function is called (when the ApcRoutine parameter is specified). The application must parse the data pointed to by ReplyBuffer parameter using the IcmpParseReplies function.

If the Event parameter is specified, the IcmpSendEcho2 function is called asynchronously. The event specified in the Event parameter is signaled whenever an ICMP response arrives. Use the CreateEvent function to create this event object.

If the ApcRoutine parameter is specified, the IcmpSendEcho2 function is called asynchronously. The ApcRoutine parameter should point to a user-defined callback function. The callback function specified in the ApcRoutine parameter is called whenever an ICMP response arrives. The invocation of the callback function specified in the ApcRoutine parameter is serialized.

If both the Event and ApcRoutine parameters are specified, the event specified in the Event parameter is signaled whenever an ICMP response arrives, but the callback function specified in the ApcRoutine parameter is ignored .

On Windows Vista and later, any application that calls IcmpSendEcho2 function asynchronously using the ApcRoutine parameter must define PIO_APC_ROUTINE_DEFINED to force the datatype for the ApcRoutine parameter to PIO_APC_ROUTINE rather than FARPROC.

Note  PIO_APC_ROUTINE_DEFINED must be defined before the Icmpapi.h header file is included.

On Windows Vista and later, the callback function pointed to by the ApcRoutine must be defined as a function of type VOID with the following syntax:

typedef
VOID WINAPI
(*PIO_APC_ROUTINE) (
    IN PVOID ApcContext,
    IN PIO_STATUS_BLOCK IoStatusBlock,
    IN ULONG Reserved
    );

On Windows Vista and later, the parameters passed to the callback function include the following:

ParameterDescription

IN PVOID ApcContext

The ApcContext parameter passed to the IcmpSendEcho2 function. This parameter can be used by the application to identify the IcmpSendEcho2 request that the callback function is responding to.

IN PIO_STATUS_BLOCK IoStatusBlock

A pointer to a IO_STATUS_BLOCK. This variable contains the final completion status and information about the operation. The number of bytes actually received in the reply is returned in the Information member of the IO_STATUS_BLOCK struct.

The IO_STATUS_BLOCK structure is defined in the Wdm.h header file.

IN ULONG Reserved

This parameter is reserved.

 

On Windows Server 2003, Windows XP , and Windows 2000, any application that calls the IcmpSendEcho2 function asynchronously using the ApcRoutine parameter must not define PIO_APC_ROUTINE_DEFINED to force the datatype for the ApcRoutine parameter to FARPROC rather than PIO_APC_ROUTINE.

On Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, the callback function pointed to by the ApcRoutine must be defined as a function of type VOID with the following syntax:

typedef
VOID WINAPI
(*FARPROC) (
    IN PVOID ApcContext,
    );

On Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, and Windows 2000, the parameters passed to the callback function include the following:

ParameterDescription

IN PVOID ApcContext

The ApcContext parameter passed to the IcmpSendEcho2 function. This parameter can be used by the application to identify the IcmpSendEcho2 request that the callback function is responding to.

 

The callback function specified in the ApcRoutine parameter must be implemented in the same process as the application calling the IcmpSendEcho2 function. If the callback function is in a separate DLL, then the DLL should be loaded before calling the IcmpSendEcho2 function.

The IcmpSendEcho2 function is exported from the Icmp.dll on Windows 2000. The IcmpSendEcho2 function is exported from the Iphlpapi.dll on Windows XP and later. Windows version checking is not recommended to use this function. Applications requiring portability with this function across Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003 and later Windows versions should not statically link to either the Icmp.lib or the Iphlpapi.lib file. Instead, the application should check for the presence of IcmpSendEcho2 in the Iphlpapi.dll with calls to LoadLibrary and GetProcAddress. Failing that, the application should check for the presence of IcmpSendEcho2 in the Icmp.dll with calls to LoadLibrary and GetProcAddress.

For IPv6, use the Icmp6CreateFile, Icmp6SendEcho2, and Icmp6ParseReplies functions.

Note that the include directive for Iphlpapi.h header file must be placed before the Icmpapi.h header file.

Examples

The following example calls the IcmpSendEcho2 function synchronously. The example sends an ICMP echo request to the IP address specified on the command line and prints the information received from the first response.


#include <winsock2.h>
#include <iphlpapi.h>
#include <icmpapi.h>
#include <stdio.h>

#pragma comment(lib, "iphlpapi.lib")
#pragma comment(lib, "ws2_32.lib")

int __cdecl main(int argc, char **argv)
{

    // Declare and initialize variables

    HANDLE hIcmpFile;
    unsigned long ipaddr = INADDR_NONE;
    DWORD dwRetVal = 0;
    DWORD dwError = 0;
    char SendData[] = "Data Buffer";
    LPVOID ReplyBuffer = NULL;
    DWORD ReplySize = 0;

    // Validate the parameters
    if (argc != 2) {
        printf("usage: %s IP address\n", argv[0]);
        return 1;
    }

    ipaddr = inet_addr(argv[1]);
    if (ipaddr == INADDR_NONE) {
        printf("usage: %s IP address\n", argv[0]);
        return 1;
    }

    hIcmpFile = IcmpCreateFile();
    if (hIcmpFile == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) {
        printf("\tUnable to open handle.\n");
        printf("IcmpCreatefile returned error: %ld\n", GetLastError());
        return 1;
    }
    // Allocate space for at a single reply
    ReplySize = sizeof (ICMP_ECHO_REPLY) + sizeof (SendData) + 8;
    ReplyBuffer = (VOID *) malloc(ReplySize);
    if (ReplyBuffer == NULL) {
        printf("\tUnable to allocate memory for reply buffer\n");
        return 1;
    }

    dwRetVal = IcmpSendEcho2(hIcmpFile, NULL, NULL, NULL,
                             ipaddr, SendData, sizeof (SendData), NULL,
                             ReplyBuffer, ReplySize, 1000);
    if (dwRetVal != 0) {
        PICMP_ECHO_REPLY pEchoReply = (PICMP_ECHO_REPLY) ReplyBuffer;
        struct in_addr ReplyAddr;
        ReplyAddr.S_un.S_addr = pEchoReply->Address;
        printf("\tSent icmp message to %s\n", argv[1]);
        if (dwRetVal > 1) {
            printf("\tReceived %ld icmp message responses\n", dwRetVal);
            printf("\tInformation from the first response:\n");
        } else {
            printf("\tReceived %ld icmp message response\n", dwRetVal);
            printf("\tInformation from this response:\n");
        }
        printf("\t  Received from %s\n", inet_ntoa(ReplyAddr));
        printf("\t  Status = %ld  ", pEchoReply->Status);
        switch (pEchoReply->Status) {
        case IP_DEST_HOST_UNREACHABLE:
            printf("(Destination host was unreachable)\n");
            break;
        case IP_DEST_NET_UNREACHABLE:
            printf("(Destination Network was unreachable)\n");
            break;
        case IP_REQ_TIMED_OUT:
            printf("(Request timed out)\n");
            break;
        default:
            printf("\n");
            break;
        }

        printf("\t  Roundtrip time = %ld milliseconds\n",
               pEchoReply->RoundTripTime);
    } else {
        printf("Call to IcmpSendEcho2 failed.\n");
        dwError = GetLastError();
        switch (dwError) {
        case IP_BUF_TOO_SMALL:
            printf("\tReplyBufferSize to small\n");
            break;
        case IP_REQ_TIMED_OUT:
            printf("\tRequest timed out\n");
            break;
        default:
            printf("\tExtended error returned: %ld\n", dwError);
            break;
        }
        return 1;
    }
    return 0;
}


Requirements

Minimum supported client

Windows 2000 Professional [desktop apps only]

Minimum supported server

Windows 2000 Server [desktop apps only]

Header

Icmpapi.h

Library

Iphlpapi.lib

DLL

Iphlpapi.dll on Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2003, and Windows XP;
Icmp.dll on Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional

See also

CreateEvent
CreateEventEx
GetLastError
ICMP_ECHO_REPLY
ICMP_ECHO_REPLY32
Icmp6CreateFile
Icmp6ParseReplies
Icmp6SendEcho2
IcmpCloseHandle
IcmpCreateFile
IcmpParseReplies
IcmpSendEcho
IcmpSendEcho2Ex
IP_OPTION_INFORMATION
IP_OPTION_INFORMATION32
IPAddr
Event Objects

 

 

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