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Retrieving Event Data Using MOF

To consume event specific data, the consumer must know the format of the event data. If the provider used MOF to publish the format of the event data, you can use the MOF class to parse the event data. All the kernel events use MOF to publish the format of the event data. For information on publishing events, see Publishing Your Event Schema.

Parsing the event data requires using the Windows Management Infrastructure (WMI) API. The ETW namespace where providers publish their MOF class is root\wmi. The ETW namespace contains three types of MOF classes: the provider MOF class, the event MOF class, and the event type MOF class. The event MOF class logically groups one or more event type MOF classes. The event type MOF class defines the actual event data.

An event MOF class contains a Guid class qualifier whose value must match the value in the Header.Guid member of the EVENT_TRACE structure. To ensure you have the correct version of the class, also compare the EventVersion class qualifier to the Header.Class.Version member of the EVENT_TRACE structure.

After you find the correct event class, enumerate its child event type classes to find the class that contains the format of the event data. The correct event type class contains an EventType class qualifier whose value matches the value in the Header.Class.Type member of the EVENT_TRACE structure.

You can then use the WMI API to enumerate the properties of the MOF class. Use the qualifiers and data type of each property to determine the size of the data element in the event data to read and how to format it. For a list of MOF qualifiers that ETW supports, see Event Tracing MOF Qualifiers.

Because ETW does not force an alignment between event data values, typecasting or assigning the value directly from a buffer may cause an alignment fault; you should not create a structure from the MOF class and try to use it to consume event data. For example, if you have a character followed by ULONGLONG, the ULONGLONG would not be aligned to an 8-byte boundary, so an assignment would cause an alignment exception. (On 64-bit computers, this happens more often.) For this reason, you should use CopyMemory to copy the data from the buffer to a local variable. Also, if the event is later revised, your consumer may not work if you try to use a structure.

Beginning with Windows Vista, you are encouraged to use the trace data helper (TDH) functions to consume events that were published using MOF classes. For details, see Retrieving Event Data Using TDH.

The following example shows how to consume events that are defined by a MOF class.


//Turns the DEFINE_GUID for EventTraceGuid into a const.
#define INITGUID

#include <windows.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <comutil.h>
#include <wbemidl.h>
#include <wmistr.h>
#include <evntrace.h>
#include <in6addr.h>

#pragma comment(lib, "comsupp.lib")  // For _bstr_t class
#pragma comment(lib, "ws2_32.lib")  // For ntohs function

#define LOGFILE_PATH L"<FULLPATHTOLOGFILE.etl>"

// Macro for determining the length of a SID.
#define SeLengthSid( Sid ) \
  (8 + (4 * ((SID*)Sid)->SubAuthorityCount))


typedef struct _propertyList
{
  BSTR Name;     // Property name
  LONG CimType;  // Property data type
  IWbemQualifierSet* pQualifiers;
} PROPERTY_LIST;

// Used to determine the data size of property values that contain the
// Pointer or SizeT qualifier. The value will be 4 or 8.
USHORT g_PointerSize = 0;

// Used to calculate CPU usage
ULONG g_TimerResolution = 0;

// Used to determine if the session is a private session or kernel session.
// You need to know this when accessing some members of the EVENT_TRACE.Header
// member (for example, KernelTime or UserTime).
BOOL g_bUserMode = FALSE;

// Used to terminate event processing early
BOOL g_TerminateProcessing = TRUE;

// Points to WMI namespace that contains the ETW MOF classes.
IWbemServices* g_pServices = NULL;

void WINAPI ProcessEvent(PEVENT_TRACE pEvent);
ULONG WINAPI ProcessBuffer(PEVENT_TRACE_LOGFILE pBuffer);
HRESULT ConnectToETWNamespace(BSTR bstrNamespace);
IWbemClassObject* GetEventCategoryClass(BSTR bstrClassGuid, ULONG Version);
IWbemClassObject* GetEventClass(IWbemClassObject* pEventTraceClass, ULONG EventType);
BOOL GetPropertyList(IWbemClassObject* pClass, PROPERTY_LIST** ppProperties, DWORD* pPropertyCount, LONG** ppPropertyIndex);
void FreePropertyList(PROPERTY_LIST* pProperties, DWORD Count, LONG* pIndex);
void PrintPropertyName(PROPERTY_LIST* pProperty);
PBYTE PrintEventPropertyValue(PROPERTY_LIST* pProperty, PBYTE pEventData, USHORT RemainingBytes);

typedef LPTSTR (NTAPI *PIPV6ADDRTOSTRING)(
  const IN6_ADDR *Addr,
  LPTSTR S
);


void wmain(void)
{
    ULONG status = ERROR_SUCCESS;
    EVENT_TRACE_LOGFILE trace;
    TRACE_LOGFILE_HEADER* pHeader = &trace.LogfileHeader;
    TRACEHANDLE hTrace = 0;  
    HRESULT hr = S_OK;

    // Identify the log file from which you want to consume events
    // and the callbacks used to process the events and buffers.

    ZeroMemory(&trace, sizeof(EVENT_TRACE_LOGFILE));
    trace.LogFileName = (LPWSTR) LOGFILE_PATH;
    trace.BufferCallback = (PEVENT_TRACE_BUFFER_CALLBACK) (ProcessBuffer);
    trace.EventCallback = (PEVENT_CALLBACK) (ProcessEvent);

    hTrace = OpenTrace(&trace);
    if ((TRACEHANDLE)INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE == hTrace)
    {
        wprintf(L"OpenTrace failed with %lu\n", GetLastError());
        goto cleanup;
    }

    g_PointerSize = (USHORT)pHeader->PointerSize;
    g_bUserMode = pHeader->LogFileMode & EVENT_TRACE_PRIVATE_LOGGER_MODE;

    if (pHeader->TimerResolution > 0)
    {
        g_TimerResolution = pHeader->TimerResolution / 10000;
    }

    wprintf(L"Number of events lost:  %lu\n", pHeader->EventsLost);

    // Use pHeader to access all fields prior to LoggerName.
    // Adjust pHeader based on the pointer size to access
    // all fields after LogFileName. This is required only if
    // you are consuming events on an architecture that is 
    // different from architecture used to write the events.

    if (pHeader->PointerSize != sizeof(PVOID))
    {
        pHeader = (PTRACE_LOGFILE_HEADER)((PUCHAR)pHeader +
            2 * (pHeader->PointerSize - sizeof(PVOID)));
    }

    wprintf(L"Number of buffers lost: %lu\n\n", pHeader->BuffersLost);

    hr = ConnectToETWNamespace(_bstr_t(L"root\\wmi"));
    if (FAILED(hr))
    {
        wprintf(L"ConnectToETWNamespace failed with 0x%x\n", hr);
        goto cleanup;
    }

    status = ProcessTrace(&hTrace, 1, 0, 0);
    if (status != ERROR_SUCCESS && status != ERROR_CANCELLED)
    {
        wprintf(L"ProcessTrace failed with %lu\n", status);
        goto cleanup;
    }

cleanup:

    if ((TRACEHANDLE)INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE != hTrace)
    {
        status = CloseTrace(hTrace);
    }

    if (g_pServices)
    {
        g_pServices->Release();
        g_pServices = NULL;
    }

    CoUninitialize();
}


VOID WINAPI ProcessEvent(PEVENT_TRACE pEvent)
{
    WCHAR ClassGuid[50];
    IWbemClassObject* pEventCategoryClass = NULL;
    IWbemClassObject* pEventClass = NULL;
    PBYTE pEventData = NULL;  
    PBYTE pEndOfEventData = NULL;
    PROPERTY_LIST* pProperties = NULL;
    DWORD PropertyCount = 0;
    LONG* pPropertyIndex = NULL;
    ULONGLONG TimeStamp = 0;
    ULONGLONG Nanoseconds = 0;
    SYSTEMTIME st;
    SYSTEMTIME stLocal;
    FILETIME ft;


    // Skips the event if it is the event trace header. Log files contain this event
    // but real-time sessions do not. The event contains the same information as 
    // the EVENT_TRACE_LOGFILE.LogfileHeader member that you can access when you open 
    // the trace. 

    if (IsEqualGUID(pEvent->Header.Guid, EventTraceGuid) &&
        pEvent->Header.Class.Type == EVENT_TRACE_TYPE_INFO)
    {
        ; // Skip this event.
    }
    else
    {
        // Process the event. The pEvent->MofData member is a pointer to 
        // the event specific data, if it exists.

        // If you encounter an error while processing an event, you could
        // set g_TerminateProcessing to TRUE to terminate event processing
        // (will occur the next time ProcessBuffer is called). 

        // Get the class GUID from the header and convert it into a string.

        StringFromGUID2(pEvent->Header.Guid, ClassGuid, sizeof(ClassGuid));
        wprintf(L"%s\n", ClassGuid);
        wprintf(L"EventVersion(%d)\n", pEvent->Header.Class.Version);
        wprintf(L"EventType(%d)\n", pEvent->Header.Class.Type);

        // Print the time stamp for when the event occurred.

        ft.dwHighDateTime = pEvent->Header.TimeStamp.HighPart;
        ft.dwLowDateTime = pEvent->Header.TimeStamp.LowPart;

        FileTimeToSystemTime(&ft, &st);
        SystemTimeToTzSpecificLocalTime(NULL, &st, &stLocal);

        TimeStamp = pEvent->Header.TimeStamp.QuadPart;
        Nanoseconds = (TimeStamp % 10000000) * 100;

        wprintf(L"%02d/%02d/%02d %02d:%02d:%02d.%I64u\n", 
            stLocal.wMonth, stLocal.wDay, stLocal.wYear, stLocal.wHour, stLocal.wMinute, stLocal.wSecond, Nanoseconds);

        // If the event contains event-specific data find the MOF class that
        // contains the format of the event data.

        if (pEvent->MofLength > 0)
        {
            pEventCategoryClass = GetEventCategoryClass(_bstr_t(ClassGuid), pEvent->Header.Class.Version);
            if (pEventCategoryClass)
            {
                // Get the event class that contains the format of the event data.

                pEventClass = GetEventClass(pEventCategoryClass, pEvent->Header.Class.Type);

                pEventCategoryClass->Release();
                pEventCategoryClass = NULL;

                if (pEventClass)
                {
                    // Enumerate the properties and retrieve the event data.

                    if (TRUE == GetPropertyList(pEventClass, &pProperties, &PropertyCount, &pPropertyIndex))
                    {
                        // Print the property name and value.

                        // Get a pointer to the beginning and end of the event data.
                        // These pointers are used to calculate the number of bytes of event
                        // data left to read. This is only useful if the last data 
                        // element is a string that contains the StringTermination("NotCounted") qualifier.

                        pEventData = (PBYTE)(pEvent->MofData);
                        pEndOfEventData = ((PBYTE)(pEvent->MofData) + pEvent->MofLength);

                        for (LONG i = 0; (DWORD)i < PropertyCount; i++)
                        {
                            PrintPropertyName(pProperties+pPropertyIndex[i]);

                            pEventData = PrintEventPropertyValue(pProperties+pPropertyIndex[i], 
                                                                 pEventData, 
                                                                 (USHORT)(pEndOfEventData - pEventData));

                            if (NULL == pEventData)
                            {
                                //Error reading the data. Handle as appropriate for your application.
                                break;
                            }
                        }

                        FreePropertyList(pProperties, PropertyCount, pPropertyIndex);
                    }

                    pEventClass->Release();
                    pEventClass = NULL;
                }
                else
                {
                    wprintf(L"Unable to find the MOF class for the event.\n");
                }
            }
            else
            {
                wprintf(L"Unable to find MOF class for %s and version %d.\n", ClassGuid, pEvent->Header.Class.Version);
            }

            wprintf(L"\n");
        }
    }
}


ULONG WINAPI ProcessBuffer(PEVENT_TRACE_LOGFILE pBuffer)
{
    UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER(pBuffer);    
    
    return g_TerminateProcessing;
}


HRESULT ConnectToETWNamespace(BSTR bstrNamespace)
{
    HRESULT hr = S_OK;
    IWbemLocator* pLocator = NULL;
    
    hr = CoInitialize(0);

    hr = CoCreateInstance(__uuidof(WbemLocator),
        0,
        CLSCTX_INPROC_SERVER,
        __uuidof(IWbemLocator),
        (LPVOID*) &pLocator);

    if (FAILED(hr))
    {
        wprintf(L"CoCreateInstance failed with 0x%x\n", hr);
        goto cleanup;
    }

    hr = pLocator->ConnectServer(bstrNamespace,
        NULL, NULL, NULL,
        0L, NULL, NULL,
        &g_pServices);

    if (FAILED(hr))
    {
        wprintf(L"pLocator->ConnectServer failed with 0x%x\n", hr);
        goto cleanup;
    }

    hr = CoSetProxyBlanket(g_pServices,
        RPC_C_AUTHN_WINNT, RPC_C_AUTHZ_NONE,
        NULL,
        RPC_C_AUTHN_LEVEL_PKT, RPC_C_IMP_LEVEL_IMPERSONATE,
        NULL, EOAC_NONE);

    if (FAILED(hr))
    {
        wprintf(L"CoSetProxyBlanket failed with 0x%x\n", hr);
        g_pServices->Release();
        g_pServices = NULL;
    }

cleanup:

    if (pLocator)
        pLocator->Release();

    return hr;
}


IWbemClassObject* GetEventCategoryClass(BSTR bstrClassGuid, int Version)
{
    HRESULT hr = S_OK;
    HRESULT hrQualifier = S_OK;
    IEnumWbemClassObject* pClasses = NULL;
    IWbemClassObject* pClass = NULL;
    IWbemQualifierSet* pQualifiers = NULL;
    ULONG cnt = 0;
    VARIANT varGuid;
    VARIANT varVersion;


    // All ETW MOF classes derive from the EventTrace class, so you need to 
    // enumerate all the EventTrace descendants to find the correct event category class. 

    hr = g_pServices->CreateClassEnum(_bstr_t(L"EventTrace"), 
        WBEM_FLAG_DEEP | WBEM_FLAG_FORWARD_ONLY | WBEM_FLAG_USE_AMENDED_QUALIFIERS,
        NULL, &pClasses);

    if (FAILED(hr))
    {
        wprintf(L"g_pServices->CreateClassEnum failed with 0x%x\n", hr);
        goto cleanup;
    }

    while (S_OK == hr)
    {
        hr = pClasses->Next(WBEM_INFINITE, 1, &pClass, &cnt);

        if (FAILED(hr))
        {
            wprintf(L"pClasses->Next failed with 0x%x\n", hr);
            goto cleanup;
        }

        // Get all the qualifiers for the class and search for the Guid qualifier. 

        hrQualifier = pClass->GetQualifierSet(&pQualifiers);

        if (pQualifiers)
        {
            hrQualifier = pQualifiers->Get(L"Guid", 0, &varGuid, NULL);

            if (SUCCEEDED(hrQualifier))
            {
                // Compare this class' GUID to the one from the event.

                if (_wcsicmp(varGuid.bstrVal, bstrClassGuid) == 0)
                {
                    // If the GUIDs are equal, check for the correct version.
                    // The version is correct if the class does not contain the EventVersion
                    // qualifier or the class version matches the version from the event.

                    hrQualifier = pQualifiers->Get(L"EventVersion", 0, &varVersion, NULL);

                    if (SUCCEEDED(hrQualifier))
                    {
                        if (Version == varVersion.intVal)
                        {
                            break; //found class
                        }

                        VariantClear(&varVersion);
                    }
                    else if (WBEM_E_NOT_FOUND == hrQualifier) 
                    {
                        break; //found class
                    }
                }

                VariantClear(&varGuid);
            }

            pQualifiers->Release();
            pQualifiers = NULL;
        }

        pClass->Release();
        pClass = NULL;
    } 

cleanup:

    if (pClasses)
    {
        pClasses->Release();
        pClasses = NULL;
    }

    if (pQualifiers)
    {
        pQualifiers->Release();
        pQualifiers = NULL;
    }

    VariantClear(&varVersion);
    VariantClear(&varGuid);

    return pClass;
}


IWbemClassObject* GetEventClass(IWbemClassObject* pEventCategoryClass, int EventType)
{
    HRESULT hr = S_OK;
    HRESULT hrQualifier = S_OK;
    IEnumWbemClassObject* pClasses = NULL;
    IWbemClassObject* pClass = NULL;
    IWbemQualifierSet* pQualifiers = NULL;
    ULONG cnt = 0;
    VARIANT varClassName;
    VARIANT varEventType;
    BOOL FoundEventClass = FALSE;

    // Get the name of the event category class so you can enumerate its children classes.

    hr = pEventCategoryClass->Get(L"__RELPATH", 0, &varClassName, NULL, NULL);

    if (FAILED(hr))
    {
        wprintf(L"pEventCategoryClass->Get failed with 0x%x\n", hr);
        goto cleanup;
    }

    hr = g_pServices->CreateClassEnum(varClassName.bstrVal, 
        WBEM_FLAG_SHALLOW | WBEM_FLAG_FORWARD_ONLY | WBEM_FLAG_USE_AMENDED_QUALIFIERS,
        NULL, &pClasses);

    if (FAILED(hr))
    {
        wprintf(L"g_pServices->CreateClassEnum failed with 0x%x\n", hr);
        goto cleanup;
    }

    // Loop through the enumerated classes and find the event class that 
    // matches the event. The class is a match if the event type from the 
    // event matches the value from the EventType class qualifier. 

    while (S_OK == hr)
    {
        hr = pClasses->Next(WBEM_INFINITE, 1, &pClass, &cnt);
        
        if (FAILED(hr))
        {
            wprintf(L"pClasses->Next failed with 0x%x\n", hr);
            goto cleanup;
        }

        // Get all the qualifiers for the class and search for the EventType qualifier. 

        hrQualifier = pClass->GetQualifierSet(&pQualifiers);

        if (FAILED(hrQualifier))
        {
            wprintf(L"pClass->GetQualifierSet failed with 0x%x\n", hrQualifier);
            pClass->Release();
            pClass = NULL;
            goto cleanup;
        }

        hrQualifier = pQualifiers->Get(L"EventType", 0, &varEventType, NULL);

        if (FAILED(hrQualifier))
        {
            wprintf(L"pQualifiers->Get(eventtype) failed with 0x%x\n", hrQualifier);
            pClass->Release();
            pClass = NULL;
            goto cleanup;
        }

        // If multiple events provide the same data, the EventType qualifier
        // will contain an array of types. Loop through the array and find a match.

        if (varEventType.vt & VT_ARRAY)
        {
            HRESULT hrSafe = S_OK;
            int ClassEventType;
            SAFEARRAY* pEventTypes = varEventType.parray;

            for (LONG i=0; (ULONG)i < pEventTypes->rgsabound->cElements; i++)
            {
                hrSafe = SafeArrayGetElement(pEventTypes, &i, &ClassEventType);

                if (ClassEventType == EventType)
                {
                    FoundEventClass = TRUE;
                    break;  //for loop
                }
            }
        }
        else
        {
            if (varEventType.intVal == EventType)
            {
                FoundEventClass = TRUE;
            }
        }

        VariantClear(&varEventType);

        if (TRUE == FoundEventClass)
        {
            break;  //while loop
        }

        pClass->Release();
        pClass = NULL;
    }

cleanup:

    if (pClasses)
    {
        pClasses->Release();
        pClasses = NULL;
    }

    if (pQualifiers)
    {
        pQualifiers->Release();
        pQualifiers = NULL;
    }

    VariantClear(&varClassName);
    VariantClear(&varEventType);

    return pClass;
}


// This function retrieves the list of properties, data type, and qualifiers for
// each property in the class. If you know the name of the property you want to 
// retrieve, you can call the IWbemClassObject::Get method to retrieve the data
// type and IWbemClassObject::GetPropertyQualifierSet to retrieve its qualifiers.

BOOL GetPropertyList(IWbemClassObject* pClass, PROPERTY_LIST** ppProperties, DWORD* pPropertyCount, LONG** ppPropertyIndex)
{
    HRESULT hr = S_OK;
    SAFEARRAY* pNames = NULL;
    LONG j = 0;
    VARIANT var;

    // Retrieve the property names.

    hr = pClass->GetNames(NULL, WBEM_FLAG_LOCAL_ONLY, NULL, &pNames);
    if (pNames)
    {
        *pPropertyCount = pNames->rgsabound->cElements;

        // Allocate a block of memory to hold an array of PROPERTY_LIST structures.

        *ppProperties = (PROPERTY_LIST*) malloc(sizeof(PROPERTY_LIST) * (*pPropertyCount));
        if (NULL == *ppProperties)
        {
            hr = E_OUTOFMEMORY;
            goto cleanup;
        }

        // WMI may not return the properties in the order as defined in the MOF. Allocate
        // an array of indexes that map into the property list array, so you can retrieve
        // the event data in the correct order.

        *ppPropertyIndex = (LONG*) malloc(sizeof(LONG) * (*pPropertyCount));
        if (NULL == *ppPropertyIndex)
        {
            hr = E_OUTOFMEMORY;
            goto cleanup;
        }

        for (LONG i = 0; (ULONG)i < *pPropertyCount; i++)
        {
            //Save the name of the property.

            hr = SafeArrayGetElement(pNames, &i, &((*ppProperties+i)->Name));
            if (FAILED(hr))
            {
                goto cleanup;
            } 

            //Save the qualifiers. Used latter to help determine how to read the event data.

            hr = pClass->GetPropertyQualifierSet((*ppProperties+i)->Name, &((*ppProperties+i)->pQualifiers));
            if (FAILED(hr))
            {
                goto cleanup;
            } 

            // Use the WmiDataId qualifier to determine the correct property order.
            // Index[0] points to the property list element that contains WmiDataId("1"),
            // Index[1] points to the property list element that contains WmiDataId("2"),
            // and so on. 

            hr = (*ppProperties+i)->pQualifiers->Get(L"WmiDataId", 0, &var, NULL);
            if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
            {
                j = var.intVal - 1;
                VariantClear(&var);
                *(*ppPropertyIndex+j) = i;
            }
            else
            {
                goto cleanup;
            }

            // Save the data type of the property.

            hr = pClass->Get((*ppProperties+i)->Name, 0, NULL, &((*ppProperties+i)->CimType), NULL);    
            if (FAILED(hr))
            {
                goto cleanup;
            } 
        }
    }

cleanup:

    if (pNames)
    {
        SafeArrayDestroy(pNames);
    }

    if (FAILED(hr))
    {
        if (*ppProperties)
        {
            FreePropertyList(*ppProperties, *pPropertyCount, *ppPropertyIndex);
        }

        return FALSE;
    }

    return TRUE;
}


void FreePropertyList(PROPERTY_LIST* pProperties, DWORD Count, LONG* pIndex)
{
    if(pProperties)
    {
        for (DWORD i=0; i < Count; i++)
        {
            SysFreeString((pProperties+i)->Name);

            if ((pProperties+i)->pQualifiers)
            {
                (pProperties+i)->pQualifiers->Release();
                (pProperties+i)->pQualifiers = NULL;
            }
        }

        free(pProperties);
    }

    if (pIndex)
        free(pIndex);
}


void PrintPropertyName(PROPERTY_LIST* pProperty)
{
    HRESULT hr;
    VARIANT varDisplayName;

    // Retrieve the Description qualifier for the property. The description qualifier
    // should contain a printable display name for the property. If the qualifier is
    // not found, print the property name.

    hr = pProperty->pQualifiers->Get(L"Description", 0, &varDisplayName, NULL);
    wprintf(L"%s: ", (SUCCEEDED(hr)) ? varDisplayName.bstrVal : pProperty->Name);
    VariantClear(&varDisplayName);
}


PBYTE PrintEventPropertyValue(PROPERTY_LIST* pProperty, PBYTE pEventData, USHORT RemainingBytes)
{
    HRESULT hr;
    VARIANT varQualifier;
    ULONG ArraySize = 1;
    BOOL PrintAsChar = FALSE;
    BOOL PrintAsHex = FALSE;
    BOOL PrintAsIPAddress = FALSE; 
    BOOL PrintAsPort = FALSE; 
    BOOL IsWideString = FALSE;
    BOOL IsNullTerminated = FALSE;
    USHORT StringLength = 0;

    // If the property contains the Pointer or PointerType qualifier,
    // you do not need to know the data type of the property. You just
    // retrieve either four bytes or eight bytes depending on the 
    // pointer's size.

    if (SUCCEEDED(hr = pProperty->pQualifiers->Get(L"Pointer", 0, NULL, NULL)) ||
        SUCCEEDED(hr = pProperty->pQualifiers->Get(L"PointerType", 0, NULL, NULL)))
    {
        if (g_PointerSize == 4) 
        {
            ULONG temp = 0;

            CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(ULONG));
            wprintf(L"0x%x\n", temp);
        }
        else
        {
            ULONGLONG temp = 0;

            CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(ULONGLONG));
            wprintf(L"0x%x\n", temp);
        }

        pEventData += g_PointerSize;

        return pEventData;
    }
    else
    {
        // If the property is an array, retrieve its size. The ArraySize variable
        // is initialized to 1 to force the loops below to print the value
        // of the property.

        if (pProperty->CimType & CIM_FLAG_ARRAY)
        {
            hr = pProperty->pQualifiers->Get(L"MAX", 0, &varQualifier, NULL);
            if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
            {
                ArraySize = varQualifier.intVal;
                VariantClear(&varQualifier);
            }
            else
            {
                wprintf(L"Failed to retrieve the MAX qualifier. Terminating.\n");
                return NULL;
            }
        }

        // The CimType is the data type of the property.

        switch(pProperty->CimType & (~CIM_FLAG_ARRAY))
        {
            case CIM_SINT32:
            {
                LONG temp = 0;

                for (ULONG i=0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                {
                    CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(LONG));
                    wprintf(L"%d\n", temp);
                    pEventData += sizeof(LONG);
                }

                return pEventData;
            }

            case CIM_UINT32:
            {
                ULONG temp = 0;

                hr = pProperty->pQualifiers->Get(L"Extension", 0, &varQualifier, NULL);
                if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
                {
                    // Some kernel events pack an IP address into a UINT32.
                    // Check for an Extension qualifier whose value is IPAddr.
                    // This is here to support legacy event classes; the IPAddr extension 
                    // should only be used on properties whose CIM type is object.

                    if (_wcsicmp(L"IPAddr", varQualifier.bstrVal) == 0)
                    {
                        PrintAsIPAddress = TRUE;
                    }

                    VariantClear(&varQualifier);
                }
                else
                {
                    hr = pProperty->pQualifiers->Get(L"Format", 0, NULL, NULL);
                    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
                    {
                        PrintAsHex = TRUE;
                    }
                }

                for (ULONG i = 0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                {
                    CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(ULONG));

                    if (PrintAsIPAddress)
                    {
                        wprintf(L"%03d.%03d.%03d.%03d\n", (temp >>  0) & 0xff,
                                                          (temp >>  8) & 0xff,
                                                          (temp >>  16) & 0xff,
                                                          (temp >>  24) & 0xff);
                    }
                    else if (PrintAsHex)
                    {
                        wprintf(L"0x%x\n", temp);
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        wprintf(L"%lu\n", temp);
                    }

                    pEventData += sizeof(ULONG);
                }

                return pEventData;
            }

            case CIM_SINT64:
            {
                LONGLONG temp = 0;

                for (ULONG i=0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                {
                    CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(LONGLONG));
                    wprintf(L"%I64d\n", temp);
                    pEventData += sizeof(LONGLONG);
                }

                return pEventData;
            }

            case CIM_UINT64:
            {
                ULONGLONG temp = 0;

                for (ULONG i=0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                {
                    CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(ULONGLONG));
                    wprintf(L"%I64u\n", temp);
                    pEventData += sizeof(ULONGLONG);
                }

                return pEventData;
            }

            case CIM_STRING:
            {
                USHORT temp = 0;

                // The format qualifier is included only if the string is a wide string.

                hr = pProperty->pQualifiers->Get(L"Format", 0, NULL, NULL);
                if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
                {
                    IsWideString = TRUE;
                }

                hr = pProperty->pQualifiers->Get(L"StringTermination", 0, &varQualifier, NULL);
                if (FAILED(hr) || (_wcsicmp(varQualifier.bstrVal, L"NullTerminated") == 0))
                {
                    IsNullTerminated = TRUE;
                }
                else if (_wcsicmp(varQualifier.bstrVal, L"Counted") == 0)
                {
                    // First two bytes of the string contain its length.

                    CopyMemory(&StringLength, pEventData, sizeof(USHORT));
                    pEventData += sizeof(USHORT);
                }
                else if (_wcsicmp(varQualifier.bstrVal, L"ReverseCounted") == 0)
                {
                    // First two bytes of the string contain its length.
                    // Count is in big-endian; convert to little-endian.

                    CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(USHORT));
                    StringLength = MAKEWORD(HIBYTE(temp), LOBYTE(temp));
                    pEventData += sizeof(USHORT);
                }
                else if (_wcsicmp(varQualifier.bstrVal, L"NotCounted") == 0)
                {
                    // The string is not null-terminated and does not contain
                    // its own length, so its length is the remaining bytes of
                    // the event data. 

                    StringLength = RemainingBytes;
                }

                VariantClear(&varQualifier);

                for (ULONG i = 0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                {
                    if (IsWideString)
                    {
                        if (IsNullTerminated)
                        {
                            StringLength = (USHORT)wcslen((WCHAR*)pEventData) + 1;
                            wprintf(L"%s\n", (WCHAR*)pEventData);
                        }
                        else
                        {
                            LONG StringSize = (StringLength) * sizeof(WCHAR); 
                            WCHAR* pwsz = (WCHAR*)malloc(StringSize+2); // +2 for NULL

                            if (pwsz)
                            {
                                CopyMemory(pwsz, (WCHAR*)pEventData, StringSize); 
                                *(pwsz+StringSize) = '\0';
                                wprintf(L"%s\n", pwsz);
                                free(pwsz);
                            }
                            else
                            {
                                // Handle allocation error.
                            }
                        }

                        StringLength *= sizeof(WCHAR);
                    }
                    else  // It is an ANSI string
                    {
                        if (IsNullTerminated)
                        {
                            StringLength = (USHORT)strlen((char*)pEventData) + 1;
                            printf("%s\n", (char*)pEventData);
                        }
                        else
                        {
                            char* psz = (char*)malloc(StringLength+1);  // +1 for NULL

                            if (psz)
                            {
                                CopyMemory(psz, (char*)pEventData, StringLength);
                                *(psz+StringLength) = '\0';
                                printf("%s\n", psz);
                                free(psz);
                            }
                            else
                            {
                                // Handle allocation error.
                            }
                        }
                    }

                    pEventData += StringLength;
                    StringLength = 0;
                }

                return pEventData;
            } 

            case CIM_BOOLEAN:
            {
                BOOL temp = FALSE;

                for (ULONG i=0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                {
                    CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(BOOL));
                    wprintf(L"%s\n", (temp) ? L"TRUE" : L"FALSE");
                    pEventData += sizeof(BOOL);
                }

                return pEventData;
            }

            case CIM_SINT8:
            case CIM_UINT8:
            {
                hr = pProperty->pQualifiers->Get(L"Extension", 0, &varQualifier, NULL);
                if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
                {
                    // This is here to support legacy event classes; the Guid extension 
                    // should only be used on properties whose CIM type is object.

                    if (_wcsicmp(L"Guid", varQualifier.bstrVal) == 0)
                    {
                        WCHAR szGuid[50];
                        GUID Guid;

                        CopyMemory(&Guid, (GUID*)pEventData, sizeof(GUID));
                        StringFromGUID2(Guid, szGuid, sizeof(szGuid)-1);
                        wprintf(L"%s\n", szGuid);
                    }

                    VariantClear(&varQualifier);
                    pEventData += sizeof(GUID);
                }
                else 
                {
                    hr = pProperty->pQualifiers->Get(L"Format", 0, NULL, NULL);
                    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
                    {
                        PrintAsChar = TRUE;  // ANSI character
                    }

                    for (ULONG i = 0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                    {
                        if (PrintAsChar)
                            wprintf(L"%c", *((char*)pEventData)); 
                        else
                            wprintf(L"%hd", *((BYTE*)pEventData));

                        pEventData += sizeof(UINT8);
                    }
                }

                wprintf(L"\n");

                return pEventData;
            }

            case CIM_CHAR16:
            {
                WCHAR temp;

                for (ULONG i = 0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                {
                    CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(WCHAR));
                    wprintf(L"%c", temp);
                    pEventData += sizeof(WCHAR);
                }

                wprintf(L"\n");

                return pEventData;
            }

            case CIM_SINT16:
            {
                SHORT temp = 0;

                for (ULONG i = 0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                {
                    CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(SHORT));
                    wprintf(L"%hd\n", temp);
                    pEventData += sizeof(SHORT);
                }

                return pEventData;
            }

            case CIM_UINT16:
            {
                USHORT temp = 0;

                // If the data is a port number, call the ntohs Windows Socket 2 function
                // to convert the data from TCP/IP network byte order to host byte order.
                // This is here to support legacy event classes; the Port extension 
                // should only be used on properties whose CIM type is object.

                hr = pProperty->pQualifiers->Get(L"Extension", 0, &varQualifier, NULL);
                if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
                {
                    if (_wcsicmp(L"Port", varQualifier.bstrVal) == 0)
                    {
                        PrintAsPort = TRUE;
                    }

                    VariantClear(&varQualifier);
                }

                for (ULONG i = 0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                {
                    CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(USHORT));

                    if (PrintAsPort)
                    {
                        wprintf(L"%hu\n", ntohs(temp));
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        wprintf(L"%hu\n", temp);
                    }

                    pEventData += sizeof(USHORT);
                }

                return pEventData;
            }

            case CIM_OBJECT:
            {
                // An object data type has to include the Extension qualifier.

                hr = pProperty->pQualifiers->Get(L"Extension", 0, &varQualifier, NULL);
                if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
                {
                    if (_wcsicmp(L"SizeT", varQualifier.bstrVal) == 0)
                    {
                        VariantClear(&varQualifier);

                        // You do not need to know the data type of the property, you just 
                        // retrieve either 4 bytes or 8 bytes depending on the pointer's size.

                        for (ULONG i = 0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                        {
                            if (g_PointerSize == 4) 
                            {
                                ULONG temp = 0;

                                CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(ULONG));
                                wprintf(L"0x%x\n", temp);
                            }
                            else
                            {
                                ULONGLONG temp = 0;

                                CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(ULONGLONG));
                                wprintf(L"0x%x\n", temp);
                            }

                            pEventData += g_PointerSize;
                        }

                        return pEventData;
                    }
                    if (_wcsicmp(L"Port", varQualifier.bstrVal) == 0)
                    {
                        USHORT temp = 0;

                        VariantClear(&varQualifier);

                        for (ULONG i = 0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                        {
                            CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(USHORT));
                            wprintf(L"%hu\n", ntohs(temp));
                            pEventData += sizeof(USHORT);
                        }

                        return pEventData;
                    }
                    else if (_wcsicmp(L"IPAddr", varQualifier.bstrVal) == 0 ||
                             _wcsicmp(L"IPAddrV4", varQualifier.bstrVal) == 0)
                    {
                        ULONG temp = 0;

                        VariantClear(&varQualifier);

                        for (ULONG i = 0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                        {
                            CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(ULONG));

                            wprintf(L"%d.%d.%d.%d\n", (temp >>  0) & 0xff,
                                                      (temp >>  8) & 0xff,
                                                      (temp >>  16) & 0xff,
                                                      (temp >>  24) & 0xff);

                            pEventData += sizeof(ULONG);
                        }

                        return pEventData;
                    }
                    else if (_wcsicmp(L"IPAddrV6", varQualifier.bstrVal) == 0)
                    {
                        WCHAR IPv6AddressAsString[46];
                        IN6_ADDR IPv6Address;
                        PIPV6ADDRTOSTRING fnRtlIpv6AddressToString;

                        VariantClear(&varQualifier);

                        fnRtlIpv6AddressToString = (PIPV6ADDRTOSTRING)GetProcAddress(
                            GetModuleHandle(L"ntdll"), "RtlIpv6AddressToStringW");

                        if (NULL == fnRtlIpv6AddressToString)
                        {
                            wprintf(L"GetProcAddress failed with %lu.\n", GetLastError());
                            return NULL;
                        }

                        for (ULONG i = 0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                        {
                            CopyMemory(&IPv6Address, pEventData, sizeof(IN6_ADDR));

                            fnRtlIpv6AddressToString(&IPv6Address, IPv6AddressAsString);

                            wprintf(L"%s\n", IPv6AddressAsString);

                            pEventData += sizeof(IN6_ADDR);
                        }

                        return pEventData;
                    }
                    else if (_wcsicmp(L"Guid", varQualifier.bstrVal) == 0)
                    {
                        WCHAR szGuid[50];
                        GUID Guid;

                        VariantClear(&varQualifier);

                        for (ULONG i = 0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                        {
                            CopyMemory(&Guid, (GUID*)pEventData, sizeof(GUID));
                            
                            StringFromGUID2(Guid, szGuid, sizeof(szGuid)-1);
                            wprintf(L"%s\n", szGuid);
                            
                            pEventData += sizeof(GUID);
                        }

                        return pEventData;
                    }
                    else if (_wcsicmp(L"Sid", varQualifier.bstrVal) == 0)
                    {
                        // Get the user's security identifier and print the 
                        // user's name and domain.

                        SID* psid;
                        DWORD cchUserSize = 0;
                        DWORD cchDomainSize = 0;
                        WCHAR* pUser = NULL;
                        WCHAR* pDomain = NULL;
                        SID_NAME_USE eNameUse;
                        DWORD status = 0;
                        ULONG temp = 0;
                        USHORT CopyLength = 0;
                        BYTE buffer[SECURITY_MAX_SID_SIZE];

                        VariantClear(&varQualifier);

                        for (ULONG i = 0; i < ArraySize; i++)
                        {
                            CopyMemory(&temp, pEventData, sizeof(ULONG));

                            if (temp > 0)
                            {
                                // A property with the Sid extension is actually a 
                                // TOKEN_USER structure followed by the SID. The size
                                // of the TOKEN_USER structure differs depending on 
                                // whether the events were generated on a 32-bit or 
                                // 64-bit architecture. Also the structure is aligned
                                // on an 8-byte boundary, so its size is 8 bytes on a
                                // 32-bit computer and 16 bytes on a 64-bit computer.
                                // Doubling the pointer size handles both cases.

                                USHORT BytesToSid = g_PointerSize * 2;

                                pEventData += BytesToSid;

                                if (RemainingBytes - BytesToSid > SECURITY_MAX_SID_SIZE)
                                {
                                    CopyLength = SECURITY_MAX_SID_SIZE;
                                }
                                else
                                {
                                    CopyLength = RemainingBytes - BytesToSid;
                                }

                                CopyMemory(&buffer, pEventData, CopyLength);
                                psid = (SID*)&buffer;

                                LookupAccountSid(NULL, psid, pUser, &cchUserSize, pDomain, &cchDomainSize, &eNameUse);

                                status = GetLastError();
                                if (ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_BUFFER == status)
                                {
                                    pUser = (WCHAR*)malloc(cchUserSize * sizeof(WCHAR));
                                    pDomain = (WCHAR*)malloc(cchDomainSize * sizeof(WCHAR));

                                    if (pUser && pDomain)
                                    {
                                        if (LookupAccountSid(NULL, psid, pUser, &cchUserSize, pDomain, &cchDomainSize, &eNameUse))
                                        {
                                            wprintf(L"%s\\%s\n", pDomain, pUser);
                                        }
                                        else
                                        {
                                            wprintf(L"Second LookupAccountSid failed with, %d\n", GetLastError());
                                        }
                                    }
                                    else
                                    {
                                        wprintf(L"Allocation error.\n");
                                    }

                                    if (pUser)
                                    {
                                        free(pUser);
                                        pUser = NULL;
                                    }

                                    if (pDomain)
                                    {
                                        free(pDomain);
                                        pDomain = NULL;
                                    }

                                    cchUserSize = 0;
                                    cchDomainSize = 0;
                                }
                                else if (ERROR_NONE_MAPPED == status)
                                {
                                    wprintf(L"Unable to locate account for the specified SID\n");
                                }
                                else
                                {
                                    wprintf(L"First LookupAccountSid failed with, %d\n", status);
                                }

                                pEventData += SeLengthSid(psid);
                            }
                            else  // There is no SID
                            {
                                pEventData += sizeof(ULONG);
                            }
                        }

                        return pEventData;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        wprintf(L"Extension, %s, not supported.\n", varQualifier.bstrVal);
                        VariantClear(&varQualifier);
                        return NULL;
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    wprintf(L"Object data type is missing Extension qualifier.\n");
                    return NULL;
                }
            }

            default: 
            {
                wprintf(L"Unknown CIM type\n");
                return NULL;
            }

        } // switch
    }
}


 

 

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