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Create a Database User

This topic describes how to create a database user mapped to a login in SQL Server 2014 by using SQL Server Management Studio or Transact-SQL. The database user is the identity of the login when it is connected to a database. The database user can use the same name as the login, but that is not required. This topic assumes that a login already exists in SQL Server. For information about how to create a login, see Create a Login.

In This Topic

Background

A user is a database level security principal. Logins must be mapped to a database user to connect to a database. A login can be mapped to different databases as different users but can only be mapped as one user in each database. In a partially contained database, a user can be created that does not have a login. For more information about contained database users, see CREATE USER (Transact-SQL). If the guest user in a database is enabled, a login that is not mapped to a database user can enter the database as the guest user.

Security note Security Note

The guest user is ordinarily disabled. Do not enable the guest user unless it is necessary.

As a security principal, permissions can be granted to users. The scope of a user is the database. To connect to a specific database on the instance of SQL Server, a login must be mapped to a database user. Permissions inside the database are granted and denied to the database user, not the login.

Security

Permissions

Requires ALTER ANY USER permission on the database.

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To create a database user

  1. In Object Explorer, expand the Databases folder.

  2. Expand the database in which to create the new database user.

  3. Right-click the Security folder, point to New, and select User….

  4. In the Database User – New dialog box, on the General page, select one of the following user types from the User type list: SQL user with login, SQL user without login, User mapped to a certificate, User mapped to an asymmetric key, or Windows user.

  5. In the User name box, enter a name for the new user. If you have chosen Windows user from the User type list, you can also click the ellipsis (…) to open the Select User or Group dialog box.

  6. In the Login name box, enter the login for the user. Alternately, click the ellipsis (…) to open the Select Login dialog box. Login name is available if you select either SQL user with login or Windows user from the User type list.

  7. In the Default schema box, specifies the schema that will own objects created by this user. Alternately, click the ellipsis (…) to open the Select Schema dialog box. Default schema is available if you select either SQL user with login, SQL user without login, or Windows user from the User type list.

  8. In the Certificate name box, enter the certificate to be used for the database user. Alternately, click the ellipsis (…) to open the Select Certificate dialog box. Certificate name is available if you select User mapped to a certificate from the User type list.

  9. In the Asymmetric key name box, enter the key to be used for the database user. Alternately, click the ellipsis (…) to open the Select Asymmetric Key dialog box. Asymmetric key name is available if you select User mapped to an asymmetric key from the User type list.

  10. Click OK.

Additional Options

The Database User – New dialog box also offers options on four additional pages: Owned Schemas, Membership, Securables, and Extended Properties.

  • The Owned Schemas page lists all possible schemas that can be owned by the new database user. To add schemas to or remove them from a database user, under Schemas owned by this user, select or clear the check boxes next to the schemas.

  • The Membership page lists all possible database membership roles that can be owned by the new database user. To add roles to or remove them from a database user, under Database role membership, select or clear the check boxes next to the roles.

  • The Securables page lists all possible securables and the permissions on those securables that can be granted to the login.

  • The Extended properties page allows you to add custom properties to database users. The following options are available on this page.

    Database

    Displays the name of the selected database. This field is read-only.

    Collation

    Displays the collation used for the selected database. This field is read-only.

    Properties

    View or specify the extended properties for the object. Each extended property consists of a name/value pair of metadata associated with the object.

    Ellipsis (…)

    Click the ellipsis (…) after Value to open the Value for Extended Property dialog box. Type or view the value of the extended property in this larger location. For more information, see Value for Extended Property Dialog Box.

    Delete

    Removes the selected extended property.

To create a database user

  1. In Object Explorer, connect to an instance of Database Engine.

  2. On the Standard bar, click New Query.

  3. Copy and paste the following example into the query window and click Execute.

    -- Creates the login AbolrousHazem with password '340$Uuxwp7Mcxo7Khy'.
    CREATE LOGIN AbolrousHazem 
        WITH PASSWORD = '340$Uuxwp7Mcxo7Khy';
    GO
    
    -- Creates a database user for the login created above.
    CREATE USER AbolrousHazem FOR LOGIN AbolrousHazem;
    GO
    

For more information, see CREATE USER (Transact-SQL).

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