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Glossary

Office 2000

This content is no longer actively maintained. It is provided as is, for anyone who may still be using these technologies, with no warranties or claims of accuracy with regard to the most recent product version or service release.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M

N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X,Y,Z

A

Access Workflow Designer

A combination of tools, wizards, and infrastructure used to build and manage team solutions based on the core services — workflow, offline replication, and security. Using the Access Workflow Designer, a developer can modify the user table hierarchy and security, design workflow, and establish offline capabilities to automate business processes. A solution manager can manage solutions, templates, and users.

action script procedure

A procedure in script or code that executes the functionality associated with a workflow action.

ADSI (Active Directory Service Interfaces)

A directory service that is part of a distributed computing environment and provides a way to locate and identify the users and resources available in the system. ADSI provides a single, consistent, open set of interfaces for managing and using multiple directories from programs such as network operating systems, e-mail systems, and groupware products to improve usability, data consistency, and development and support costs.

B

base table

A table from which a view is derived. For example, in the Issue Tracking solution, the IssuesView is created from the base Issues table. Also used to refer to the table to which a workflow process is attached.

business rules

An organizational standard operating procedure that requires certain policies be followed to ensure a business is run correctly. Business rules ensure the database maintains its accuracy with business policies. Business rules can be used as a baseline for a workflow process.

C

change script

A text file that contains SQL statements for all changes made to a database in the order in which they were made during an editing session. Each change script is saved in a separate text file with an .sql extension. Change scripts can be applied to the database later. This process is used during synchronization of offline databases with the server.

char(n) data type

A character data type that holds a maximum of 8,000 characters. Storage size is n regardless of the actual length of the entry.

client

A front-end application that uses the services provided by a server. The computer that hosts the application is referred to as the client computer.

conflict resolution

During synchronization, the selection or correction of data when differences occur between the data on the server and the offline client database.

control

A graphical object, such as a text box, that you place on a form or data access page. A control is typically used to display data.

create action

A step in a workflow process that creates a new row in the base table with a specified state value.

D

data access pages

A Web page created in Access that has a connection to a database. With Internet Explorer 5, users can navigate to a data access page to view, edit, and manipulate data stored in a database.

database owner

A member of the database administrator role for a database. Each database has only one database owner. The owner has full permissions for that database and determines the access and capabilities provided to other users.

Database Registration wizard

A wizard launched from the Access Workflow Designer that walks through the process of registering a solution database in the modSystem database on the server and associating the database with a team Web site.

database role

A SQL Server role created to support an application's security requirements. Groups or users are assigned to roles that define their levels of access to the team solution.

dependencies

In the database, the views, stored procedures, or tables that depend on the specified table or view.

detail user table

A user table related to another detail or main user table that stores additional information about an item. These have a child (many-to-one) relationship with main user tables. Detail tables may hold multiple rows related to a single row in the parent main or detail user table. In addition, detail tables can be associated with workflow and inherit permissions from their parent main table.

DCOM (Distributed Component Object Model)

A configuration that integrates distributed solutions in a network. A distributed solution consists of multiple processes that work together to accomplish a single task. The Distributed COM Configuration tool (dcomcnfg.exe) is used to configure 32-bit COM and DCOM applications. For more information about using this tool, see Windows or Windows NT Help.

E

Export Template

On the Template tab in the Team Solutions Manager, a command that saves a selected template from the template directory to a specified destination as a template file (.tpl). A template file can be used to transfer that template to a new server.

F

FAT file system

A method for managing disk storage. A file allocation table (FAT) file system is used by an operating system to keep track of the various segments of disk space used for file storage. See Windows NT file system.

foreign key (FK)

The column or combination of columns whose values match the primary key (PK) or unique key in the same or another table. A foreign key does not have to be unique. A foreign key is often in a many-to-one relationship with a primary key.

G

group account

An administrative unit within Windows NT that contains other Windows NT account users or groups. In addition, the permissions or rights granted to a group are provided to its members, making groups a convenient way to grant common capabilities to collections of user accounts.

H

hierarchy

An arrangement of tables into levels based on parent-child relationships. In Access Workflow Designer, a main user table is the parent. Detail and lookup user tables are associated with main tables.

I

identity property

In SQL Server, a property that makes it possible for columns to contain system-generated values that uniquely identify each row in a table. When inserting values into a table that has an identity column, SQL Server generates the next identifier automatically based on the last used identity value (incremented by adding rows) and the increment value specified during column creation.

Import Template

On the Templates tab in the Team Solutions Manager, a command that adds a template saved as a template file (.tpl) to the template directory on the server.

Issue Tracking solution

A solution provided as a template with Microsoft Office Developer that makes it possible for users to enter issues into a database and track them through resolution. The Issue Tracking solution can be used as is or as the baseline for new solutions.

J

K

L

LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)

A protocol that requires that the content of AttributeValue fields in protocol elements be octet strings.

lookup user table

A user table associated with a main or detail user table that does not store information relating to specific items — for example, a keyword lookup table. A lookup table has a one-to-many relationship with the main or detail user table.

M

Main Table Selection wizard

A wizard launched from the Access Workflow Designer that walks through the process of identifying table hierarchy and row-level security for the team solution.

main user table

Of the user tables, the top-level tables in the hierarchy that can be associated with row-level security, offline publications, and workflow.

many-to-one relationship

A relationship between two tables in which multiple rows in the first table can be related to one row in the second table. A typical many-to-one relationship is between the employee table and the jobs table in the Pubs sample database, in which each employee can be related to a single job, but each job can be related to many employees.

modSystem database

A database stored on the server and installed by the Access Workflow Designer Server Components Setup. Contains the necessary system-level files to create and run a team solution. Also contains the user directory and the template directory.

N

New Template wizard

A wizard launched from the Access Workflow Designer that walks through the process of creating a new solution template based on an existing solution.

New Team Solution wizard

A wizard used to create a new instance of a solution based on a template.

NTFS (Windows NT File System)

An advanced file system designed for use specifically within the Windows NT operating system. It supports file system recovery, extremely large storage media, long file names, and various features for the Portable Operating System Interface for Unix (POSIX) subsystem. It also supports object-oriented applications by treating all files as objects with user-defined and system-defined attributes.

O

Object List

A tree-view window in the Access Workflow Designer that displays the tables, workflow, and offline publication information for the team solution.

offline publication

A definition of a set of objects that are available for replication offline. A publication can contain database tables, views, stored procedures, and all the solution's Web pages. This definition is used to generate an SQL publication.

Offline Publication wizard

A wizard launched from the Access Workflow Designer that walks through the process of creating offline publications for the solution.

offline replication

The duplication of database tables and stored procedures in a second database for offline use with synchronization capabilities. Copies of the appropriate database tables are created locally to use while offline.

OLE DB

A COM-based application programming interface (API) for accessing data. OLE DB supports accessing any format data storage (databases, spreadsheets, text files, and so on) for which an OLE DB provider is available.

In the OLE DB architecture, the application that accesses the data is called a data consumer (for example, Access 2000 or a Visual Basic 6.0 program), and the program that enables native access to the data is called a database provider (for example, Microsoft OLE DB Provider for SQL Server or Microsoft Jet 4.0 OLE DB Provider).

one-to-many relationship

A relationship between two tables in which a single row in the first table can be related to one or more rows in the second table, but a row in the second table can be related to only one row in the first table. A typical one-to-many relationship is between the publishers table and the titles table in the Pubs sample database. Each publisher can be related to several titles, but each title can be related to only one publisher.

one-to-one relationship

A relationship between two tables in which a single row in the first table can be related only to one row in the second table, and a row in the second table can be related only to one row in the first table. This type of relationship is unusual.

P

permissions

The rules associated with the team solution that define access to solution resources. Applies to Windows NT users, SQL Server logins, and database roles. Permissions can be granted on many levels: server, database, database tables, database rows, and so on.

primary key (PK)

The column or combination of columns that uniquely identifies one row from any other row in a table. A primary key (PK) must be non-Null and must have a unique index. A primary key is commonly used to create joins with foreign keys (matching nonprimary keys) in other tables.

publication

In SQL Server, a group of articles available for replication as a unit. A publication can contain one or more published tables or stored procedure articles from one user database. Each solution database can have one or more publications.

Publication Access List

A list of SQL Server logins that have access to a publication. The default Publication Access List on a server controls access to all publications on that server not having a custom Publication Access List.

Q

R

relationship

A link between tables that references the primary key in one table to a foreign key in another table.

replication

The duplication of table schema and data or stored procedure definitions and calls from a source database to a destination database, usually on separate servers.

replication filters

A set of criteria applied to a main user table in an offline publication to create a subset of the data available for offline use.

Replication Monitor

A graphical tool in SQL Server Enterprise Manager used to simplify replication monitoring and troubleshooting.

role

An administrative unit within SQL Server that contains SQL Server logins, Windows NT logons, groups, or other roles. See also group account.

S

SAM (Security Accounts Manager)

A database used by Windows NT to store security information, such as user account names, passwords, and security policy settings.

Save as Template

On the File menu in the Access Workflow Designer, a command that creates a new template based on the selected solution. The new template is registered in the template directory on the workgroup server.

schema

A description of a database generated by the data definition language (DDL) of a database management system (DBMS).

server

A computer on a local area network (LAN) that controls access to resources, such as files, printers, and communication devices.

SID (Security ID) account

A unique name that identifies a logged-on user to the security system. SIDs can identify one user or a group of users.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols that governs the exchange of electronic mail between message transfer agents.

solution

An application using a Web-based user interface and a SQL Server database enhanced with the core features provided by Access Workflow Designer. Also called a team solution.

solution database

A database created by a developer that is registered in the Access Workflow Designer. Each solution database is created with a subset of system tables from the SQL Server master database and the modSystem database.

solution developer

A person who uses the Access Workflow Designer tools to create new team solutions and templates and customize existing ones. Must be a member of the modAppOwners Windows NT group.

solution owner

The person who manages the solutions, templates, and user information on the server. This person is responsible for deploying and maintaining solutions. Must be a member of the system administrators group.

solution registration

When creating a new solution, the Access Workflow Designer records the location of the database and Web site, so the new solution appears in the list of available solutions on the server. A solution must be registered using the Database Registration wizard before it can be accessed using the Access Workflow Designer tools.

solution template

A blueprint containing all the information required to create a new solution containing a new database with Access Workflow Designer core services and new team Web files.

solution user

A person who has permissions to use the team solution based on Windows NT domain users and groups.

SQL Server Agent

A SQL Server component used to create and manage local or multiserver jobs, alerts, and operators. Job schedules are defined in the Job Properties dialog box. SQL Server Agent communicates with SQL Server to run the job according to the job's schedule.

SQL Server Authentication

A verification process that makes it possible for users to connect to SQL Server using SQL Server logins. SQL Server performs the authentication.

SQL Server Books Online

The SQL Server online documentation set. SQL Server Books Online is an installation option included in the Setup program. If you select this option, files are copied to your hard disk, and the SQL Server Books Online icon is added to the Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 program group.

SQL Server Enterprise Manager

A graphical application that makes it possible for enterprise-wide configuration and management of SQL Server and SQL Server objects. In addition, you can use SQL Server Enterprise Manager to manage logins, permissions, and users; create scripts; manage devices and databases; back up databases and transaction logs; and manage tables, views, stored procedures, triggers, indexes, rules, defaults, and user-defined data types.

SQL Server login

An account stored in SQL Server that makes it possible for users to connect to it.

stored procedure

A precompiled collection of Transact-SQL (T-SQL) statements stored under a name and processed as a unit. Stored procedures are available for managing SQL Server and displaying information about databases and users. SQL Server-supplied stored procedures are called system-stored procedures.

subscribe

To agree to receive a publication. A destination database on a Subscriber subscribes to replicated data from a publication database on a Publisher.

subscription database

An offline database that receives tables and data replicated from the publication database.

system administrator

A person responsible for the overall administration of a SQL Server. The sa login is the only login authorized to perform all functions in SQL Server. Certain critical administrative functions can be performed only by the sa login. In addition, the members are treated as the owner of whatever database they are using.

T

table

An object in a database that stores data as a collection of rows and columns.

table hierarchy

A main user table and its related detail and lookup tables.

team solution

A SQL Server database and its Web-based user interface created using the Access Workflow Designer. The team solution can contain any combination of the core services: workflow, offline, and row-level security. Also called a solution.

Team Solutions Manager

An administrative tool in Access Workflow Designer that makes it possible for the solution administrator to manage all the team solutions, templates, and users for the server.

team Web

The Web site containing the HTML and data access pages that provide the interface for users to access the solution database.

template

A blueprint containing all the information required to create a new solution containing a new database with Access Workflow Designer core services and new team Web files.

template directory

A list of templates stored in the modSystem database on the server.

timestamp data type

A SQL Server system data type that is a monotonically increasing counter whose values are always unique within a database. A timestamp is the date and time the data was last modified. Timestamp data types are not supported in offline publications created using Access Workflow Designer.

trigger

A stored procedure that runs when data in a specified table is modified. Triggers are often created to enforce referential integrity or consistency among logically related data in different tables.

U

user account

In Windows NT, all the information that defines a user to Windows NT — for example, user name, password, group membership, and permissions. In SQL Server, controls permissions for activities performed in a database.

user directory

A list of Windows NT users who have access to team solutions on the server. The user information is stored in the modUserList table in the modSystem database on the server. This information is based on user information stored by Windows NT domain and Exchange Server (if available). Using the Team Solutions Manager, server administrators can define synchronization schedules.

user tables

In the solution database, tables defined by the solution developer used to store solution data. The three types of user table are main user tables, detail user tables, and lookup tables.

V

validation function

A function in script or code that verifies whether the current workflow action can be performed.

view

An alternate way of looking at data from one or more tables in the database. A view is a virtual table, usually created as a subset of columns from one or more tables.

W

Windows NT Authentication

Makes it possible for users to connect to SQL Server through a Windows NT user account.

Windows NT File System (NTFS)

See NTFS.

Windows NT user

Security account that maps to a Windows NT logon and controls permissions on activities performed in a database.

workflow

The progress of an item or issue as it moves through a series of defined actions or procedures.

workflow action

A step in a workflow process. There are seven types of actions: create, change, delete, transition, time-out, enter, and exit. Actions trigger events that can invoke script procedures.

workflow diagram

A graphic representation of the states and actions in the workflow process. The workflow diagram is available in the Access Workflow Designer Workflow Process pane on the Design tab.

workflow engine

An Access Workflow Designer component that provides the core workflow services used to enforce the workflow defined for the solution.

workflow event

Events generated by the workflow engine to execute workflow actions.

workflow process

A set of actions and states that implement the workflow definition for an item.

Workflow Process wizard

A wizard launched from the Access Workflow Designer that walks through the process of creating a workflow process for a main or detail user table.

workflow state

A defined stage or condition in the workflow process. The name for each state is stored in the workflow state lookup table.

workflow state lookup table

A table that stores the names of the states in a workflow process. This table has an integer primary key and a one-to-many relationship with the workflow-enabled user table.

workflow status column

A column in a user table that stores the current status of each row in the workflow process. This column stores the identifiers of rows in the workflow state lookup table.

workflow table

A table in the solution database containing the definition for the actions that implement a workflow process.

workflow-enabled user table

A table in the solution database with an associated workflow process. Any updates, inserts, or deletes to this table are evaluated by the workflow engine to ensure they conform to the workflow process.

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