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Using Calendars for Specific Cultures 

A globalized application should be able to display and use calendars based on the current culture. The .NET Framework provides the Calendar class as well as the following Calendar implementations: GregorianCalendar, HebrewCalendar, HijriCalendar, JapaneseCalendar, JulianCalendar, KoreanCalendar, TaiwanCalendar, and ThaiBuddhistCalendar.

The CultureInfo class has a CultureInfo.Calendar property that specifies a culture's default calendar. Some cultures support more than one calendar. The CultureInfo.OptionalCalendars property specifies the optional calendars supported by a culture.

The following code example creates CultureInfo objects for the cultures "th-TH" (Thai in Thailand) and "ja-JP" (Japanese in Japan), and displays the default and optional calendars for each culture. Note that the GregorianCalendar is further divided into subtypes. The GregorianCalendar.CalendarType property specifies the Gregorian calendar's subtype. In this example, each time the calendar is determined to be Gregorian, the CalendarType value is retrieved and displayed. For a list and explanation of the possible values for CalendarType, see GregorianCalendarTypes Enumeration.

Imports System
Imports System.Globalization
Imports Microsoft.VisualBasic

Public Class TestClass   
   
   Public Shared Sub Main()
      ' Creates a CultureInfo for Thai in Thailand.
      Dim th As New CultureInfo("th-TH")
      DisplayCalendars(th)

      ' Creates a CultureInfo for Japanese in Japan.
      Dim ja As New CultureInfo("ja-JP")
      DisplayCalendars(ja)
   End Sub

   Protected Shared Sub DisplayCalendars(cultureinfo As CultureInfo)
      Dim ci As New CultureInfo(cultureinfo.ToString())
      
      ' Displays the default calendar for the culture.
      If TypeOf ci.Calendar Is GregorianCalendar Then
         Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + ControlChars.Newline + _
         "The default calendar for the {0} culture is:" + _
         ControlChars.Newline + " {1}" + ControlChars.Newline + _
         ControlChars.Newline, ci.DisplayName.ToString(), _
         ci.Calendar.ToString() + " subtype" + CType(ci.Calendar, _
         GregorianCalendar).CalendarType.ToString())
      Else
         Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + ControlChars.Newline + _
            "The default calendar for the {0} culture is:" + _
            ControlChars.Newline + "{1}" + ControlChars.Newline + _
            ControlChars.Newline, ci.DisplayName.ToString(),_
            ci.Calendar.ToString())
      End If
      
      ' Displays the optional calendars for the culture.
      Console.WriteLine("The optional calendars for the {0} culture are: _
         ", ci.DisplayName.ToString())
      Dim i As Integer
      For i = ci.OptionalCalendars.GetLowerBound(0) To _
         ci.OptionalCalendars.GetUpperBound(0)

         If TypeOf ci.OptionalCalendars(i) Is GregorianCalendar Then
            ' Displays the calendar subtype.
            Dim CalStr As [String] = ci.OptionalCalendars(i).ToString() _
               + " subtype " + CType(ci.OptionalCalendars(i), _
               GregorianCalendar).CalendarType.ToString()
            Console.WriteLine(CalStr)
         Else
            Console.WriteLine(ci.OptionalCalendars(i).ToString())
         End If
      Next i 
   End Sub
End Class

This code produces the following output:

The default calendar for the Thai (Thailand) culture is: 
System.Globalization.ThaiBuddhistCalendar

The optional calendars for the Thai (Thailand) culture are: 
System.Globalization.ThaiBuddhistCalendar
System.Globalization.GregorianCalendar subtype Localized

The default calendar for the Japanese (Japan) culture is:
System.Globalization.GregorianCalendar subtype Localized

The optional calendars for the Japanese (Japan) culture are: 
System.Globalization.JapaneseCalendar
System.Globalization.GregorianCalendar subtype USEnglish
System.Globalization.GregorianCalendar subtype Localized

The following code example illustrates how similar methods in the DateTime structure and Calendar class can return different results for the same culture. The CurrentCulture is set to "he-IL" (Hebrew in Israel), and the current calendar is set to the HebrewCalendar. A DateTime is created and initialized. Next, members of DateTime and Calendar are used to return the day, month, year, and number of months in the year, and these values are displayed. Only the Calendar class methods return the day, month, year, and number of months in the year based on the Hebrew calendar. DateTime methods always use the Gregorian calendar to perform the calculations, regardless of the current calendar.

Imports System
Imports System.Threading
Imports System.Globalization
Imports Microsoft.VisualBasic

Public Class TestClass

   Public Shared Sub Main()
      ' Creates a CultureInfo for Hebrew in Israel.
      Dim he As New CultureInfo("he-IL")
      he.DateTimeFormat.Calendar = New HebrewCalendar()
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + ControlChars.Newline _
         + "The current calendar set for the {0} culture is:" + _
         ControlChars.Newline + " {1}", he.DisplayName.ToString(), _
         he.DateTimeFormat.Calendar.ToString())
      Dim dt As New DateTime(5760, 11, 4, he.DateTimeFormat.Calendar)
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + " The DateTime class _
         returns the day as: {0}", dt.Day)
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + " The Calendar class _
         returns the day as: {0}", _
         he.DateTimeFormat.Calendar.GetDayOfMonth(dt))
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + " The DateTime class _
         returns the month as: {0}", dt.Month)
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + " The Calendar class _
         returns the month as: {0}", _
         he.DateTimeFormat.Calendar.GetMonth(dt))
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + " The DateTime class _
         returns the Year as: {0}", dt.Year)
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + " The Calendar class _
         returns the Year as: {0}", _
         he.DateTimeFormat.Calendar.GetYear(dt))
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + " The Calendar class _
         returns the number of months in the year {0} as: {1}", _
         he.DateTimeFormat.Calendar.GetYear(dt), _
         he.DateTimeFormat.Calendar.GetMonthsInYear _
        (he.DateTimeFormat.Calendar.GetYear(dt))
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + " The DateTime class does _
         not return the number of months in a year " + _
         ControlChars.Newline + " because it uses the Gregorian _
         calendar, which always has twelve months.")
   End Sub
End Class

This code produces the following output:

The current calendar set for the Hebrew (Israel) culture is:
 System.Globalization.HebrewCalendar

The DateTime class returns the day as: 7

The Calendar class returns the day as: 4

The DateTime class returns the month as: 7

The Calendar class returns the month as: 11

The DateTime class returns the year as: 2000

The Calendar class returns the year as: 5760

The Calendar class returns the number of months in the year 5760 as: 13

The DateTime class does not return the number of months in a year 
because it uses the Gregorian calendar, which always has twelve months.

The following code example illustrates how the values returned for the current month, day, and year can differ depending on the current calendar that is set for a specified culture. The CurrentCulture is set to "ja-JP" and the calendar is set to the JapaneseCalendar. The day, month, and year are returned and displayed. Next, the calendar is set to the GregorianCalendar and the day, month, and year are returned and displayed. Notice how the year differs depending upon the current calendar. The JapaneseCalendar returns the year as 13, while the GregorianCalendar returns the year as 2001.

Imports System
Imports System.Threading
Imports System.Globalization
Imports Microsoft.VisualBasic 

Public Class TestClass   
   
   Public Shared Sub Main()
      Dim dt As DateTime = DateTime.Now
      
      ' Creates a CultureInfo for Japanese in Japan.
      Dim jp As New CultureInfo("ja-JP")
      
      jp.DateTimeFormat.Calendar = New JapaneseCalendar()
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + ControlChars.Newline + _
         "The current calendar set for the {0} culture is:" + _
         ControlChars.Newline + " {1}", jp.DisplayName.ToString(), _
         jp.DateTimeFormat.Calendar.ToString())
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + " The day is: {0}", _
         jp.DateTimeFormat.Calendar.GetDayOfMonth(dt))
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + " The month is: {0}", _
         jp.DateTimeFormat.Calendar.GetMonth(dt))
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + " The year is: {0}", _
         jp.DateTimeFormat.Calendar.GetYear(dt))

      jp.DateTimeFormat.Calendar = New GregorianCalendar()
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + ControlChars.Newline + _
         "The current calendar set for the {0} culture is:" + _
         ControlChars.Newline + " {1}", jp.DisplayName.ToString(), _
         jp.DateTimeFormat.Calendar.ToString())
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + " The day is: {0}", _
         jp.DateTimeFormat.Calendar.GetDayOfMonth(dt))
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + " The month is: {0}", _
         jp.DateTimeFormat.Calendar.GetMonth(dt))
      Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.Newline + " The year is: {0}", _
         jp.DateTimeFormat.Calendar.GetYear(dt))
   End Sub
End Class

This code produces the following output:

The current calendar set for the Japanese (Japan) culture is:
System.Globalization.JapaneseCalendar
The day is: 3
The month is: 8
The year is: 13

The current calendar set for the Japanese (Japan) culture is:
System.Globalization.GregorianCalendar
The day is: 3
The month is: 8
The year is: 2001

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