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db_command

Creates an OLE DB command.

[ db_command( 
   command, 
   name, 
   source_name, 
   hresult, 
   bindings, 
   bulk_fetch)
]
command

A command string containing the text of an OLE DB command. A simple example is:

 [ db_command ( command = "Select * from Products" ) ]

The command syntax is as follows:

binding parameter block 1
   OLE DB command
binding parameter block 2
   continuation of OLE DB command
binding parameter block 3
...

A binding parameter block is defined as follows:

([bindtype] szVar1 [, szVar2 [, nVar3 [, ...]]] )

where:

( marks the start of the data binding block.

[bindtype] is one of the following case-insensitive strings:

  • [db_column] binds each of the member variables to a column in a rowset.

  • [bindto] (same as [db_column]).

  • [in] binds member variables as input parameters.

  • [out] binds member variables as output parameters.

  • [in,out] binds member variables as input/output parameters.

SzVarX resolves to a member variable within the current scope.

) marks the end of the data binding block.

If the command string contains one or more specifiers such as [in], [out], or [in/out], db_command builds a parameter map.

If the command string contains one or more parameters such as [db_column] or [bindto], db_command generates a rowset and an accessor map to service these bound variables. See db_accessor for more information.

NoteNote

[bindtype] syntax and the bindings parameter are not valid when using db_command at the class level.

Here are some examples of binding parameter blocks. The following example binds the m_au_fname and m_au_lname data members to the au_fname and au_lname columns, respectively, of the authors table in the pubs database:

TCHAR m_au_fname[21];
TCHAR m_au_lname[41];
TCHAR m_state[3] = 'CA';

[db_command (
   command = "SELECT au_fname([bindto]m_au_fname), au_lname([bindto]m_au_lname) " \
   "FROM dbo.authors " \
   "WHERE state = ?([in]m_state)")

]

name (optional)

The name of the handle you use to work with the rowset. If you specify name, db_command generates a class with the specified name, which can be used to traverse the rowset or to execute multiple action queries. If you do not specify name, it will not be possible to return more than one row of results to the user.

source_name (optional)

The CSession variable or instance of a class that has the db_source attribute applied to it on which the command executes. See db_source.

db_command checks to ensure that the variable used for source_name is valid, so the specified variable should be in function or global scope.

hresult (optional)

Identifies the variable that will receive the HRESULT of this database command. If the variable does not exist, it will be automatically injected by the attribute.

bindings (optional)

Allows you to separate the binding parameters from the OLE DB command.

If you specify a value for bindings, db_command will parse the associated value and will not parse the [bindtype] parameter. This usage allows you to use OLE DB provider syntax. To disable parsing, without binding parameters, specify Bindings="".

If you do not specify a value for bindings, db_command will parse the binding parameter block, looking for '(', followed by [bindtype] in brackets, followed by one or more previously declared C++ member variables, followed by ')'. All text between the parentheses will be stripped from the resulting command, and these parameters will be used to construct column and parameter bindings for this command.

bulk_fetch(optional)

An integer value that specifies the number of rows to fetch.

The default value is 1, which specifies single row fetching (the rowset will be of type CRowset).

A value greater than 1 specifies bulk row fetching. Bulk row fetching refers to the ability of bulk rowsets to fetch multiple row handles (the rowset will be of type CBulkRowset and will call SetRows with the specified number of rows).

If bulk_fetch is less than one, SetRows will return zero.

db_command creates a CCommand object, which is used by an OLE DB consumer to execute a command.

You can use db_command with either class or function scope; the main difference is the scope of the CCommand object. With function scope, data such as bindings terminate at function end. Both class and function scope usages involve the OLE DB Consumer Template class CCommand<>, but the template arguments differ for the function and class cases. In the function case, bindings will be made to an Accessor that comprises local variables, while the class usage will infer a CAccessor-derived class as the argument. When used as a class attribute, db_command works in conjunction with db_column.

db_command can be used to execute commands that do not return a result set.

When the consumer attribute provider applies this attribute to a class, the compiler will rename the class to _YourClassNameAccessor, where YourClassName is the name you gave the class, and the compiler will also create a class called YourClassName, which derives from _YourClassNameAccessor. In Class View, you will see both classes.

This sample defines a command that selects the first and last names from a table where the state column matches 'CA'. db_command creates and reads a rowset on which you can call wizard-generated functions such as OpenAll and CloseAll, as well as CRowset member functions such as MoveNext.

Note that this code requires you to provide your own connection string that connects to the pubs database. For information on how to do this in the development environment, see How to: Connect to a Database from Server Explorer.

// db_command.h
#include <atlbase.h>
#include <atlplus.h>
#include <atldbcli.h>

#pragma once

[  db_source(L"your connection string"),
   db_command(L" \
      SELECT au_lname, au_fname \
      FROM dbo.authors \
      WHERE state = 'CA'")  ]

struct CAuthors {
   // In order to fix several issues with some providers, the code below may bind
   // columns in a different order than reported by the provider

   DBSTATUS m_dwau_lnameStatus;
   DBSTATUS m_dwau_fnameStatus;
   DBLENGTH m_dwau_lnameLength;
   DBLENGTH m_dwau_fnameLength;

   [ db_column("au_lname", status="m_dwau_lnameStatus", length="m_dwau_lnameLength") ] TCHAR m_au_lname[41];
   [ db_column("au_fname", status="m_dwau_fnameStatus", length="m_dwau_fnameLength") ] TCHAR m_au_fname[21];

   [ db_param("7", paramtype="DBPARAMIO_INPUT") ] TCHAR m_state[3];
   

   void GetRowsetProperties(CDBPropSet* pPropSet) {
      pPropSet->AddProperty(DBPROP_CANFETCHBACKWARDS, true, DBPROPOPTIONS_OPTIONAL);
      pPropSet->AddProperty(DBPROP_CANSCROLLBACKWARDS, true, DBPROPOPTIONS_OPTIONAL);
   }
};
// db_command.cpp
// compile with: /c
#include "db_command.h"

int main(int argc, _TCHAR* argv[]) {
   HRESULT hr = CoInitialize(NULL);

   // Instantiate rowset
   CAuthors rs;

   // Open rowset and move to first row
   strcpy_s(rs.m_state, sizeof(rs.m_state), _T("CA"));
   hr = rs.OpenAll();
   hr = rs.MoveFirst();
   
   // Iterate through the rowset
   while( SUCCEEDED(hr) && hr != DB_S_ENDOFROWSET ) {
      // Print out the column information for each row
      printf("First Name: %s, Last Name: %s\n", rs.m_au_fname, rs.m_au_lname);
      hr = rs.MoveNext();
   }

   rs.CloseAll();
   CoUninitialize();
}

This sample uses db_source on a data source class CMySource, and db_command on command classes CCommand1 and CCommand2.

// db_command_2.cpp
// compile with: /c
#include <atlbase.h>
#include <atlplus.h>
#include <atldbcli.h>
// class usage for both db_source and db_command

[  db_source(L"your connection string"),
   db_command(L" \
      SELECT au_lname, au_fname \
      FROM dbo.authors \
      WHERE state = 'CA'")  ]
struct CMySource {
   HRESULT OpenDataSource() {
      return S_OK;
   }
};

[db_command(command = "SELECT * FROM Products")]
class CCommand1 {};

[db_command(command = "SELECT FNAME, LNAME FROM Customers")]
class CCommand2 {};

int main() {
   CMySource s;
   HRESULT hr = s.OpenDataSource();
   if (SUCCEEDED(hr)) {
      CCommand1 c1;
      hr = c1.Open(s);

      CCommand2 c2;
      hr = c2.Open(s);
   }

   s.CloseDataSource();
}
Attribute Context

Applies to

class, struct, member, method, local

Repeatable

No

Required attributes

None

Invalid attributes

None

For more information about the attribute contexts, see Attribute Contexts.

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