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/Gd, /Gr, /Gv, /Gz (Calling Convention)

These options determine the order in which function arguments are pushed onto the stack, whether the caller function or called function removes the arguments from the stack at the end of the call, and the name-decorating convention that the compiler uses to identify individual functions.

/Gd
/Gr
/Gv
/Gz

/Gd, the default setting, specifies the __cdecl calling convention for all functions except C++ member functions and functions that are marked __stdcall, __fastcall, or __vectorcall.

/Gr specifies the __fastcall calling convention for all functions except C++ member functions, functions named main, and functions that are marked __cdecl, __stdcall, or __vectorcall. All __fastcall functions must have prototypes. This calling convention is only available in compilers that target x86, and is ignored by compilers that target other architectures.

/Gz specifies the __stdcall calling convention for all functions except C++ member functions, functions named main, and functions that are marked __cdecl, __fastcall, or __vectorcall. All __stdcall functions must have prototypes. This calling convention is only available in compilers that target x86, and is ignored by compilers that target other architectures.

/Gv specifies the __vectorcall calling convention for all functions except C++ member functions, functions named main, functions with a vararg variable argument list, or functions that are marked with a conflicting __cdecl, __stdcall, or __fastcall attribute. This calling convention is only available on x86 and x64 architectures that support /arch:SSE2 and above, and is ignored by compilers that target the ARM architecture.

Functions that take a variable number of arguments must be marked __cdecl.

/Gd, /Gr, /Gv and /Gz are not compatible with /clr:safe or /clr:pure.

Note Note

By default for x86 processors, C++ member functions use __thiscall.

For all processors, a member function that is explicitly marked as __cdecl, __fastcall, __vectorcall, or __stdcall uses the specified calling convention if it is not ignored on that architecture. A member function that takes a variable number of arguments always uses the __cdecl calling convention.

These compiler options have no effect on the name decoration of C++ methods and functions. Unless declared as extern "C", C++ methods and functions use a different name-decorating scheme. For more information, see Decorated Names.

For more information about calling conventions, see Calling Conventions.

__cdecl Specifics

On x86 processors, all function arguments are passed on the stack from right to left. On ARM and x64 architectures, some arguments are passed by register and the rest are passed on the stack from right to left. The calling routine pops the arguments from the stack.

For C, the __cdecl naming convention uses the function name preceded by an underscore ( _ ); no case translation is performed. Unless declared as extern "C", C++ functions use a different name-decorating scheme. For more information, see Decorated Names.

__fastcall Specifics

Some of a __fastcall function's arguments are passed in registers (for x86 processors, ECX, and EDX), and the rest are pushed onto the stack from right to left. The called routine pops these arguments from the stack before it returns. Typically, /Gr decreases execution time.

Note Note

Be careful when you use the __fastcall calling convention for any function that's written in inline assembly language. Your use of registers could conflict with the compiler's use.

For C, the __fastcall naming convention uses the function name preceded by an at sign (@) followed by the size of the function's arguments in bytes. No case translation is done. The compiler uses this template for the naming convention:

@function_name@number

When you use the __fastcall naming convention, use the standard include files. Otherwise, you will get unresolved external references.

__stdcall Specifics

A __stdcall function's arguments are pushed onto the stack from right to left, and the called function pops these arguments from the stack before it returns.

For C, the __stdcall naming convention uses the function name preceded by an underscore ( _ ) and followed by an at sign (@) and the size of the function's arguments in bytes. No case translation is performed. The compiler uses this template for the naming convention:

_functionname@number

__vectorcall Specifics

A __vectorcall function’s integer arguments are passed by value, using up to two (on x86) or four (on x64) integer registers, and up to six XMM registers for floating-point and vector values, and the rest are passed on the stack from right to left. The called function cleans off the stack before it returns. Vector and floating-point return values are returned in XMM0.

For C, the __vectorcall naming convention uses the function name followed by two at signs (@@) and the size of the function's arguments in bytes. No case translation is performed. The compiler uses this template for the naming convention:

functionname@@number
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