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Decimal Structure

Represents a decimal number.

Namespace:  System
Assembly:  mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)
[SerializableAttribute]
[ComVisibleAttribute(true)]
public struct Decimal : IFormattable, IComparable, 
	IConvertible, IDeserializationCallback, IComparable<decimal>, IEquatable<decimal>

The Decimal type exposes the following members.

  NameDescription
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryDecimal(Double)Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified double-precision floating-point number.
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryDecimal(Int32)Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified 32-bit signed integer.
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryDecimal(Int32[])Initializes a new instance of Decimal to a decimal value represented in binary and contained in a specified array.
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryDecimal(Int64)Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified 64-bit signed integer.
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryDecimal(Single)Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified single-precision floating-point number.
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryDecimal(UInt32)Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified 32-bit unsigned integer.
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryDecimal(UInt64)Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified 64-bit unsigned integer.
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryDecimal(Int32, Int32, Int32, Boolean, Byte)Initializes a new instance of Decimal from parameters specifying the instance's constituent parts.
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  NameDescription
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryAddAdds two specified Decimal values.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by Portable Class LibraryCeilingReturns the smallest integral value that is greater than or equal to the specified decimal number.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryCompareCompares two specified Decimal values.
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryCompareTo(Decimal)Compares this instance to a specified Decimal object.
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkCompareTo(Object)Compares this instance to a specified Object.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryDivideDivides two specified Decimal values.
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryEquals(Decimal)Returns a value indicating whether this instance and a specified Decimal object represent the same value.
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryEquals(Object)Returns a value indicating whether this instance and a specified Object represent the same type and value. (Overrides ValueType.Equals(Object).)
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryEquals(Decimal, Decimal)Returns a value indicating whether two specified instances of Decimal represent the same value.
Protected methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryFinalizeAllows an object to try to free resources and perform other cleanup operations before it is reclaimed by garbage collection. (Inherited from Object.)
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryFloorRounds a specified Decimal number to the closest integer toward negative infinity.
Public methodStatic memberFromOACurrencyConverts the specified 64-bit signed integer, which contains an OLE Automation Currency value, to the equivalent Decimal value.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryGetBitsConverts the value of a specified instance of Decimal to its equivalent binary representation.
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryGetHashCodeReturns the hash code for this instance. (Overrides ValueType.GetHashCode().)
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryGetTypeGets the Type of the current instance. (Inherited from Object.)
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkGetTypeCodeReturns the TypeCode for value type Decimal.
Protected methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryMemberwiseCloneCreates a shallow copy of the current Object. (Inherited from Object.)
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryMultiplyMultiplies two specified Decimal values.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryNegateReturns the result of multiplying the specified Decimal value by negative one.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkParse(String)Converts the string representation of a number to its Decimal equivalent.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkParse(String, NumberStyles)Converts the string representation of a number in a specified style to its Decimal equivalent.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryParse(String, IFormatProvider)Converts the string representation of a number to its Decimal equivalent using the specified culture-specific format information.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryParse(String, NumberStyles, IFormatProvider)Converts the string representation of a number to its Decimal equivalent using the specified style and culture-specific format.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryRemainderComputes the remainder after dividing two Decimal values.
Public methodStatic memberRound(Decimal)Rounds a decimal value to the nearest integer.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryRound(Decimal, Int32)Rounds a Decimal value to a specified number of decimal places.
Public methodStatic memberRound(Decimal, MidpointRounding)Rounds a decimal value to the nearest integer. A parameter specifies how to round the value if it is midway between two other numbers.
Public methodStatic memberRound(Decimal, Int32, MidpointRounding)Rounds a decimal value to a specified precision. A parameter specifies how to round the value if it is midway between two other numbers.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibrarySubtractSubtracts one specified Decimal value from another.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryToByteConverts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 8-bit unsigned integer.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryToDoubleConverts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent double-precision floating-point number.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryToInt16Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 16-bit signed integer.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryToInt32Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 32-bit signed integer.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryToInt64Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 64-bit signed integer.
Public methodStatic memberToOACurrencyConverts the specified Decimal value to the equivalent OLE Automation Currency value, which is contained in a 64-bit signed integer.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryToSByteConverts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 8-bit signed integer.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryToSingleConverts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent single-precision floating-point number.
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryToString()Converts the numeric value of this instance to its equivalent string representation. (Overrides ValueType.ToString().)
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryToString(IFormatProvider)Converts the numeric value of this instance to its equivalent string representation using the specified culture-specific format information.
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkToString(String)Converts the numeric value of this instance to its equivalent string representation, using the specified format.
Public methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryToString(String, IFormatProvider)Converts the numeric value of this instance to its equivalent string representation using the specified format and culture-specific format information.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryToUInt16Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 16-bit unsigned integer.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryToUInt32Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 32-bit unsigned integer.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryToUInt64Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 64-bit unsigned integer.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryTruncateReturns the integral digits of the specified Decimal; any fractional digits are discarded.
Public methodStatic memberTryParse(String, Decimal)Converts the string representation of a number to its Decimal equivalent. A return value indicates whether the conversion succeeded or failed.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by Portable Class LibraryTryParse(String, NumberStyles, IFormatProvider, Decimal)Converts the string representation of a number to its Decimal equivalent using the specified style and culture-specific format. A return value indicates whether the conversion succeeded or failed.
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  NameDescription
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryAdditionAdds two specified Decimal values.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryDecrementDecrements the Decimal operand by one.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryDivisionDivides two specified Decimal values.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryEqualityReturns a value indicating whether two instances of Decimal are equal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryExplicit(Decimal to Int16)Converts a Decimal to a 16-bit signed integer.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryExplicit(Decimal to Double)Converts a Decimal to a double-precision floating-point number.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryExplicit(Decimal to SByte)Converts a Decimal to an 8-bit signed integer.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by Portable Class LibraryExplicit(Decimal to Char)Converts a Decimal to a Unicode character.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryExplicit(Decimal to Int64)Converts a Decimal to a 64-bit signed integer.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryExplicit(Decimal to Int32)Converts a Decimal to a 32-bit signed integer.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryExplicit(Decimal to UInt64)Converts a Decimal to a 64-bit unsigned integer.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryExplicit(Decimal to UInt16)Converts a Decimal to a 16-bit unsigned integer.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryExplicit(Decimal to Single)Converts a Decimal to a single-precision floating-point number.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryExplicit(Decimal to UInt32)Converts a Decimal to a 32-bit unsigned integer.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryExplicit(Decimal to Byte)Converts a Decimal to an 8-bit unsigned integer.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryExplicit(Double to Decimal)Converts a double-precision floating-point number to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryExplicit(Single to Decimal)Converts a single-precision floating-point number to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryGreaterThanReturns a value indicating whether a specified Decimal is greater than another specified Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryGreaterThanOrEqualReturns a value indicating whether a specified Decimal is greater than or equal to another specified Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryImplicit(Byte to Decimal)Converts an 8-bit unsigned integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryImplicit(Char to Decimal)Converts a Unicode character to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryImplicit(Int16 to Decimal)Converts a 16-bit signed integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryImplicit(Int32 to Decimal)Converts a 32-bit signed integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryImplicit(Int64 to Decimal)Converts a 64-bit signed integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryImplicit(SByte to Decimal)Converts an 8-bit signed integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryImplicit(UInt16 to Decimal)Converts a 16-bit unsigned integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryImplicit(UInt32 to Decimal)Converts a 32-bit unsigned integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryImplicit(UInt64 to Decimal)Converts a 64-bit unsigned integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryIncrementIncrements the Decimal operand by 1.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryInequalityReturns a value indicating whether two instances of Decimal are not equal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryLessThanReturns a value indicating whether a specified Decimal is less than another specified Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryLessThanOrEqualReturns a value indicating whether a specified Decimal is less than or equal to another specified Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryModulusReturns the remainder resulting from dividing two specified Decimal values.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryMultiplyMultiplies two specified Decimal values.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibrarySubtractionSubtracts two specified Decimal values.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryUnaryNegationNegates the value of the specified Decimal operand.
Public operatorStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryUnaryPlusReturns the value of the Decimal operand (the sign of the operand is unchanged).
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  NameDescription
Public fieldStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryMaxValueRepresents the largest possible value of Decimal. This field is constant and read-only.
Public fieldStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryMinusOneRepresents the number negative one (-1).
Public fieldStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryMinValueRepresents the smallest possible value of Decimal. This field is constant and read-only.
Public fieldStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryOneRepresents the number one (1).
Public fieldStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSupported by Portable Class LibraryZeroRepresents the number zero (0).
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  NameDescription
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkIConvertible.ToBooleanInfrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToBoolean.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkIConvertible.ToByteInfrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToByte.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkIConvertible.ToCharInfrastructure. This conversion is not supported. Attempting to use this method throws an InvalidCastException.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkIConvertible.ToDateTimeInfrastructure. This conversion is not supported. Attempting to use this method throws an InvalidCastException.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkIConvertible.ToDecimalInfrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToDecimal.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkIConvertible.ToDoubleInfrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToDouble.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkIConvertible.ToInt16Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt16.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkIConvertible.ToInt32Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt32.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkIConvertible.ToInt64Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt64.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkIConvertible.ToSByteInfrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToSByte.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkIConvertible.ToSingleInfrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToSingle.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkIConvertible.ToTypeInfrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToType.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkIConvertible.ToUInt16Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToUInt16.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkIConvertible.ToUInt32Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt32.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodSupported by the XNA FrameworkIConvertible.ToUInt64Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt64.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIDeserializationCallback.OnDeserializationInfrastructure. Runs when the deserialization of an object has been completed.
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The Decimal value type represents decimal numbers ranging from positive 79,228,162,514,264,337,593,543,950,335 to negative 79,228,162,514,264,337,593,543,950,335. The Decimal value type is appropriate for financial calculations requiring large numbers of significant integral and fractional digits and no round-off errors. The Decimal type does not eliminate the need for rounding. Rather, it minimizes errors due to rounding. For example, the following code produces a result of 0.9999999999999999999999999999 rather than 1.


decimal dividend = Decimal.One;
decimal divisor = 3;
// The following displays 0.9999999999999999999999999999 to the console
Console.WriteLine(dividend/divisor * divisor);   


When the result of the division and multiplication is passed to the Round method, the result suffers no loss of precision as the following code shows.


decimal dividend = Decimal.One;
decimal divisor = 3;
// The following displays 1.00 to the console
Console.WriteLine(Math.Round(dividend/divisor * divisor, 2));   


A decimal number is a floating-point value that consists of a sign, a numeric value where each digit in the value ranges from 0 to 9, and a scaling factor that indicates the position of a floating decimal point that separates the integral and fractional parts of the numeric value.

The binary representation of a Decimal value consists of a 1-bit sign, a 96-bit integer number, and a scaling factor used to divide the 96-bit integer and specify what portion of it is a decimal fraction. The scaling factor is implicitly the number 10, raised to an exponent ranging from 0 to 28. Therefore, the binary representation of a Decimal value is of the form, ((-296 to 296) / 10(0 to 28)), where -296-1 is equal to MinValue, and 296-1 is equal to MaxValue.

The scaling factor also preserves any trailing zeroes in a Decimal number. Trailing zeroes do not affect the value of a Decimal number in arithmetic or comparison operations. However, trailing zeroes can be revealed by the ToString method if an appropriate format string is applied.

Conversion Considerations

This type provides methods that convert Decimal values to and from SByte, Int16, Int32, Int64, Byte, UInt16, UInt32, and UInt64. Conversions from these integral types to Decimal are widening conversions that never lose information or throw exceptions.

Conversions from Decimal to any of the integral types are narrowing conversions that round the Decimal value to the nearest integer value toward zero. Some languages, such as C#, also support the conversion of Decimal values to Char values. If the result of these conversions cannot be represented in the destination type, an OverflowException is thrown.

The Decimal type also provides methods that convert Decimal values to and from Single and Double. Conversions from Decimal to Single or Double are narrowing conversions that might lose precision but not information about the magnitude of the converted value. The conversion will not throw an exception.

Conversions from Single or Double to Decimal throw an OverflowException if the result of the conversion cannot be represented as a Decimal.

The following code example demonstrates the use of Decimal.


	/// <summary>
	/// Keeping my fortune in Decimals to avoid the round-off errors.
	/// </summary>
	class PiggyBank {
		protected decimal MyFortune;

		public void AddPenny() {
			MyFortune = Decimal.Add(MyFortune, .01m);
		}

		public decimal Capacity {
			get {
				return Decimal.MaxValue;
			}
		}

		public decimal Dollars {
			get {
				return Decimal.Floor(MyFortune);
			}
		}

		public decimal Cents {
			get {
				return Decimal.Subtract(MyFortune, Decimal.Floor(MyFortune));
			}
		}

		public override string ToString() {
			return MyFortune.ToString("C")+" in piggy bank";
		}
	}


.NET Framework

Supported in: 4, 3.5, 3.0, 2.0, 1.1, 1.0

.NET Framework Client Profile

Supported in: 4, 3.5 SP1

Portable Class Library

Supported in: Portable Class Library

Windows 7, Windows Vista SP1 or later, Windows XP SP3, Windows XP SP2 x64 Edition, Windows Server 2008 (Server Core not supported), Windows Server 2008 R2 (Server Core supported with SP1 or later), Windows Server 2003 SP2

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

All members of this type are thread safe. Members that appear to modify instance state actually return a new instance initialized with the new value. As with any other type, reading and writing to a shared variable that contains an instance of this type must be protected by a lock to guarantee thread safety.

Caution noteCaution

Assigning an instance of this type is not thread safe on all hardware platforms because the binary representation of that instance might be too large to assign in a single atomic operation.

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