.NET Framework 4 - Windows Forms
How to: Bind Data to the Windows Forms DataGridView Control

The DataGridView control supports the standard Windows Forms data binding model, so it will bind to a variety of data sources. In most circumstances, however, you will bind to a BindingSource component which will manage the details of interacting with the data source. The BindingSource component can represent any Windows Forms data source and gives you great flexibility when choosing or modifying the location of your data. For more information about the data sources supported by the DataGridView control, see DataGridView Control Overview (Windows Forms).

There is extensive support for this task in Visual Studio.

Procedure

To connect a DataGridView control to data

  1. Implement a method to handle the details of retrieving data from a database. The following code example implements a GetData method that initializes a SqlDataAdapter component and uses it to populate a DataTable. The DataTable is then bound to the BindingSource component. Be sure to set the connectionString variable to a value that is appropriate for your database. You will need access to a server with the Northwind SQL Server sample database installed.

    Private Sub GetData(ByVal selectCommand As String)
    
        Try 
            ' Specify a connection string. Replace the given value with a  
            ' valid connection string for a Northwind SQL Server sample 
            ' database accessible to your system. 
            Dim connectionString As String = _
                "Integrated Security=SSPI;Persist Security Info=False;" + _
                "Initial Catalog=Northwind;Data Source=localhost" 
    
            ' Create a new data adapter based on the specified query. 
            Me.dataAdapter = New SqlDataAdapter(selectCommand, connectionString)
    
            ' Create a command builder to generate SQL update, insert, and 
            ' delete commands based on selectCommand. These are used to 
            ' update the database. 
            Dim commandBuilder As New SqlCommandBuilder(Me.dataAdapter)
    
            ' Populate a new data table and bind it to the BindingSource. 
            Dim table As New DataTable()
            table.Locale = System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture
            Me.dataAdapter.Fill(table)
            Me.bindingSource1.DataSource = table
    
            ' Resize the DataGridView columns to fit the newly loaded content. 
            Me.dataGridView1.AutoResizeColumns( _
                DataGridViewAutoSizeColumnsMode.AllCellsExceptHeader)
        Catch ex As SqlException
            MessageBox.Show("To run this example, replace the value of the " + _
                "connectionString variable with a connection string that is " + _
                "valid for your system.")
        End Try 
    
    End Sub
    private void GetData(string selectCommand)
    {
        try
        {
            // Specify a connection string. Replace the given value with a  
            // valid connection string for a Northwind SQL Server sample 
            // database accessible to your system.
            String connectionString =
                "Integrated Security=SSPI;Persist Security Info=False;" +
                "Initial Catalog=Northwind;Data Source=localhost";
    
            // Create a new data adapter based on the specified query.
            dataAdapter = new SqlDataAdapter(selectCommand, connectionString);
    
            // Create a command builder to generate SQL update, insert, and 
            // delete commands based on selectCommand. These are used to 
            // update the database.
            SqlCommandBuilder commandBuilder = new SqlCommandBuilder(dataAdapter);
    
            // Populate a new data table and bind it to the BindingSource.
            DataTable table = new DataTable();
            table.Locale = System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
            dataAdapter.Fill(table);
            bindingSource1.DataSource = table;
    
            // Resize the DataGridView columns to fit the newly loaded content.
            dataGridView1.AutoResizeColumns( 
                DataGridViewAutoSizeColumnsMode.AllCellsExceptHeader);
        }
        catch (SqlException)
        {
            MessageBox.Show("To run this example, replace the value of the " +
                "connectionString variable with a connection string that is " +
                "valid for your system.");
        }
    }
    private:
        void GetData(String^ selectCommand)
        {
            try
            {
                // Specify a connection string. Replace the given value with a  
                // valid connection string for a Northwind SQL Server sample 
                // database accessible to your system.
                String^ connectionString = 
                    "Integrated Security=SSPI;Persist Security Info=False;" +
                    "Initial Catalog=Northwind;Data Source=localhost";
    
                // Create a new data adapter based on the specified query.
                dataAdapter = gcnew SqlDataAdapter(selectCommand, connectionString);
    
                // Create a command builder to generate SQL update, insert, and 
                // delete commands based on selectCommand. These are used to 
                // update the database. 
                gcnew SqlCommandBuilder(dataAdapter);
    
                // Populate a new data table and bind it to the BindingSource.
                DataTable^ table = gcnew DataTable();
                dataAdapter->Fill(table);
                bindingSource1->DataSource = table;
    
                // Resize the DataGridView columns to fit the newly loaded content.
                dataGridView1->AutoResizeColumns( 
                    DataGridViewAutoSizeColumnsMode::AllCellsExceptHeader);
            }
            catch (SqlException^)
            {
                MessageBox::Show("To run this example, replace the value of the " +
                    "connectionString variable with a connection string that is " +
                    "valid for your system.");
            }
        }
  2. In your form's Load event handler, bind the DataGridView control to the BindingSource component and call the GetData method to retrieve the data from the database.

    Private Sub Form1_Load(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) _
        Handles Me.Load
    
        ' Bind the DataGridView to the BindingSource 
        ' and load the data from the database. 
        Me.dataGridView1.DataSource = Me.bindingSource1
        GetData("select * from Customers")
    
    End Sub
    private void Form1_Load(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
    {
        // Bind the DataGridView to the BindingSource 
        // and load the data from the database.
        dataGridView1.DataSource = bindingSource1;
        GetData("select * from Customers");
    }
    void Form1_Load(Object^ /*sender*/, System::EventArgs^ /*e*/)
    {
        // Bind the DataGridView to the BindingSource 
        // and load the data from the database.
        dataGridView1->DataSource = bindingSource1;
        GetData("select * from Customers");
    }
Example

The following complete code example provides buttons for reloading data from the database and submitting changes to the database.

Imports System
Imports System.Data
Imports System.Data.SqlClient
Imports System.Windows.Forms

Public Class Form1
    Inherits System.Windows.Forms.Form

    Private dataGridView1 As New DataGridView()
    Private bindingSource1 As New BindingSource()
    Private dataAdapter As New SqlDataAdapter()
    Private WithEvents reloadButton As New Button()
    Private WithEvents submitButton As New Button()

    <STAThreadAttribute()> _
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        Application.Run(New Form1())
    End Sub 

    ' Initialize the form. 
    Public Sub New()

        Me.dataGridView1.Dock = DockStyle.Fill

        Me.reloadButton.Text = "reload" 
        Me.submitButton.Text = "submit" 

        Dim panel As New FlowLayoutPanel()
        panel.Dock = DockStyle.Top
        panel.AutoSize = True
        panel.Controls.AddRange(New Control() {Me.reloadButton, Me.submitButton})

        Me.Controls.AddRange(New Control() {Me.dataGridView1, panel})
        Me.Text = "DataGridView databinding and updating demo" 

    End Sub 

    Private Sub Form1_Load(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) _
        Handles Me.Load

        ' Bind the DataGridView to the BindingSource 
        ' and load the data from the database. 
        Me.dataGridView1.DataSource = Me.bindingSource1
        GetData("select * from Customers")

    End Sub 

    Private Sub reloadButton_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) _
        Handles reloadButton.Click

        ' Reload the data from the database.
        GetData(Me.dataAdapter.SelectCommand.CommandText)

    End Sub 

    Private Sub submitButton_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) _
        Handles submitButton.Click

        ' Update the database with the user's changes. 
        Me.dataAdapter.Update(CType(Me.bindingSource1.DataSource, DataTable))

    End Sub 

    Private Sub GetData(ByVal selectCommand As String)

        Try 
            ' Specify a connection string. Replace the given value with a  
            ' valid connection string for a Northwind SQL Server sample 
            ' database accessible to your system. 
            Dim connectionString As String = _
                "Integrated Security=SSPI;Persist Security Info=False;" + _
                "Initial Catalog=Northwind;Data Source=localhost" 

            ' Create a new data adapter based on the specified query. 
            Me.dataAdapter = New SqlDataAdapter(selectCommand, connectionString)

            ' Create a command builder to generate SQL update, insert, and 
            ' delete commands based on selectCommand. These are used to 
            ' update the database. 
            Dim commandBuilder As New SqlCommandBuilder(Me.dataAdapter)

            ' Populate a new data table and bind it to the BindingSource. 
            Dim table As New DataTable()
            table.Locale = System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture
            Me.dataAdapter.Fill(table)
            Me.bindingSource1.DataSource = table

            ' Resize the DataGridView columns to fit the newly loaded content. 
            Me.dataGridView1.AutoResizeColumns( _
                DataGridViewAutoSizeColumnsMode.AllCellsExceptHeader)
        Catch ex As SqlException
            MessageBox.Show("To run this example, replace the value of the " + _
                "connectionString variable with a connection string that is " + _
                "valid for your system.")
        End Try 

    End Sub 

End Class
using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Data.SqlClient;
using System.Windows.Forms;

public class Form1 : System.Windows.Forms.Form
{
    private DataGridView dataGridView1 = new DataGridView();
    private BindingSource bindingSource1 = new BindingSource();
    private SqlDataAdapter dataAdapter = new SqlDataAdapter();
    private Button reloadButton = new Button();
    private Button submitButton = new Button();

    [STAThreadAttribute()]
    public static void Main()
    {
        Application.Run(new Form1());
    }

    // Initialize the form. 
    public Form1()
    {
        dataGridView1.Dock = DockStyle.Fill;

        reloadButton.Text = "reload";
        submitButton.Text = "submit";
        reloadButton.Click += new System.EventHandler(reloadButton_Click);
        submitButton.Click += new System.EventHandler(submitButton_Click);

        FlowLayoutPanel panel = new FlowLayoutPanel();
        panel.Dock = DockStyle.Top;
        panel.AutoSize = true;
        panel.Controls.AddRange(new Control[] { reloadButton, submitButton });

        this.Controls.AddRange(new Control[] { dataGridView1, panel });
        this.Load += new System.EventHandler(Form1_Load);
        this.Text = "DataGridView databinding and updating demo";
    }

    private void Form1_Load(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
    {
        // Bind the DataGridView to the BindingSource 
        // and load the data from the database.
        dataGridView1.DataSource = bindingSource1;
        GetData("select * from Customers");
    }

    private void reloadButton_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
    {
        // Reload the data from the database.
        GetData(dataAdapter.SelectCommand.CommandText);
    }

    private void submitButton_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
    {
        // Update the database with the user's changes.
        dataAdapter.Update((DataTable)bindingSource1.DataSource);
    }

    private void GetData(string selectCommand)
    {
        try
        {
            // Specify a connection string. Replace the given value with a  
            // valid connection string for a Northwind SQL Server sample 
            // database accessible to your system.
            String connectionString =
                "Integrated Security=SSPI;Persist Security Info=False;" +
                "Initial Catalog=Northwind;Data Source=localhost";

            // Create a new data adapter based on the specified query.
            dataAdapter = new SqlDataAdapter(selectCommand, connectionString);

            // Create a command builder to generate SQL update, insert, and 
            // delete commands based on selectCommand. These are used to 
            // update the database.
            SqlCommandBuilder commandBuilder = new SqlCommandBuilder(dataAdapter);

            // Populate a new data table and bind it to the BindingSource.
            DataTable table = new DataTable();
            table.Locale = System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
            dataAdapter.Fill(table);
            bindingSource1.DataSource = table;

            // Resize the DataGridView columns to fit the newly loaded content.
            dataGridView1.AutoResizeColumns( 
                DataGridViewAutoSizeColumnsMode.AllCellsExceptHeader);
        }
        catch (SqlException)
        {
            MessageBox.Show("To run this example, replace the value of the " +
                "connectionString variable with a connection string that is " +
                "valid for your system.");
        }
    }

}
#using <System.Data.dll>
#using <System.Transactions.dll>
#using <System.EnterpriseServices.dll>
#using <System.Xml.dll>
#using <System.Drawing.dll>
#using <System.dll>
#using <System.Windows.Forms.dll>

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Data;
using namespace System::Data::SqlClient;
using namespace System::Windows::Forms;

public ref class Form1 : public System::Windows::Forms::Form
{
private:
    DataGridView^ dataGridView1;
private:
    BindingSource^ bindingSource1;
private:
    SqlDataAdapter^ dataAdapter;
private:
    Button^ reloadButton;
private:
    Button^ submitButton;

public:
    static void Main()
    {
        Application::Run(gcnew Form1());
    }

    // Initialize the form. 
public:
    Form1()
    {
        dataGridView1 = gcnew DataGridView();
        bindingSource1 = gcnew BindingSource();
        dataAdapter = gcnew SqlDataAdapter();
        reloadButton = gcnew Button();
        submitButton = gcnew Button();

        dataGridView1->Dock = DockStyle::Fill;

        reloadButton->Text = "reload";
        submitButton->Text = "submit";
        reloadButton->Click += gcnew System::EventHandler(this,&Form1::reloadButton_Click);
        submitButton->Click += gcnew System::EventHandler(this,&Form1::submitButton_Click);

        FlowLayoutPanel^ panel = gcnew FlowLayoutPanel();
        panel->Dock = DockStyle::Top;
        panel->AutoSize = true;
        panel->Controls->AddRange(gcnew array<Control^> { reloadButton, submitButton });

        this->Controls->AddRange(gcnew array<Control^> { dataGridView1, panel });
        this->Load += gcnew System::EventHandler(this,&Form1::Form1_Load);
    }

    void Form1_Load(Object^ /*sender*/, System::EventArgs^ /*e*/)
    {
        // Bind the DataGridView to the BindingSource 
        // and load the data from the database.
        dataGridView1->DataSource = bindingSource1;
        GetData("select * from Customers");
    }

    void reloadButton_Click(Object^ /*sender*/, System::EventArgs^ /*e*/)
    {
        // Reload the data from the database.
        GetData(dataAdapter->SelectCommand->CommandText);
    }

    void submitButton_Click(Object^ /*sender*/, System::EventArgs^ /*e*/)
    {
        // Update the database with the user's changes.
        dataAdapter->Update((DataTable^)bindingSource1->DataSource);
    }

private:
    void GetData(String^ selectCommand)
    {
        try
        {
            // Specify a connection string. Replace the given value with a  
            // valid connection string for a Northwind SQL Server sample 
            // database accessible to your system.
            String^ connectionString = 
                "Integrated Security=SSPI;Persist Security Info=False;" +
                "Initial Catalog=Northwind;Data Source=localhost";

            // Create a new data adapter based on the specified query.
            dataAdapter = gcnew SqlDataAdapter(selectCommand, connectionString);

            // Create a command builder to generate SQL update, insert, and 
            // delete commands based on selectCommand. These are used to 
            // update the database. 
            gcnew SqlCommandBuilder(dataAdapter);

            // Populate a new data table and bind it to the BindingSource.
            DataTable^ table = gcnew DataTable();
            dataAdapter->Fill(table);
            bindingSource1->DataSource = table;

            // Resize the DataGridView columns to fit the newly loaded content.
            dataGridView1->AutoResizeColumns( 
                DataGridViewAutoSizeColumnsMode::AllCellsExceptHeader);
        }
        catch (SqlException^)
        {
            MessageBox::Show("To run this example, replace the value of the " +
                "connectionString variable with a connection string that is " +
                "valid for your system.");
        }
    }
};
Compiling the Code

This example requires:

  • References to the System, System.Windows.Forms, System.Data, and System.XML assemblies.

For information about building this example from the command line for Visual Basic or Visual C#, see Building from the Command Line (Visual Basic) or Command-line Building With csc.exe. You can also build this example in Visual Studio by pasting the code into a new project.

Security

Storing sensitive information, such as a password, within the connection string can affect the security of your application. Using Windows Authentication (also known as integrated security) is a more secure way to control access to a database. For more information, see Protecting Connection Information.