Using WPP Software Tracing in UMDF Drivers

WPP software tracing enables you to add tracing messages that help you debug your driver. Additionally, the framework's event logger provides hundreds of tracing messages that you can view.

You can view tracing messages by using TraceView or Tracelog. You can also send trace messages to a kernel debugger.

Adding Tracing Messages to Your Driver

To add tracing messages to your framework-based driver, you must:

  • Add an #include directive to each of your driver's source files that contains any of the WPP macros. This directive must identify a trace message header (TMH) file. The file name must have a format of <driver-source-file-name>.tmh.

    For example, if your driver consists of two source files, called MyDriver1.c and MyDriver2.c, then MyDriver1.c must contain:

    #include "MyDriver1.tmh"

    and MyDriver2.c must contain:

    #include "MyDriver2.tmh"

    When you build your driver in Microsoft Visual Studio, the WPP preprocessor generates the .tmh files.

  • Define a WPP_CONTROL_GUIDS macro in a header file. This macro defines a GUID and trace flags for your driver's tracing messages. (For each of the WDK's UMDF-based sample drivers, the Internal.h header file includes this macro.)

  • Include a WPP_INIT_TRACING macro in your driver's DllMain routine. This macro activates software tracing in your driver. (For each of the WDK's UMDF-based sample drivers, the DllSup.h header file includes this macro.)

  • Include a WPP_CLEANUP macro in your driver's DllMain routine. This macro deactivates software tracing in your driver. (For each of the WDK's UMDF-based sample drivers, the DllSup.h header file includes this macro.)

  • Use the DoTraceMessage macro, or a customized version of the macro, in your driver to create trace messages. (For each of the WDK's UMDF-based sample drivers, the Internal.h header file includes a customized macro.)

  • Open the Property Pages for your driver project. Right-click the driver project in Solution Explorer and select Properties. In the Property Pages for the driver, click Configuration Properties, and then Wpp. Under the General menu, set Run WPP Tracing to Yes. Under the File Options menu, you should also specify the framework's WPP template file, for example:

    {km-WdfDefault.tpl}*.tmh
    

For more information about adding tracing messages to your driver, see Adding WPP Macros to a Driver.

Sample Drivers That Use WPP Software Tracing

All of the UMDF-based sample drivers in the WDK provide DllSup.h, Internal.h, and Sources files that enable WPP software tracing. Most of these sample drivers also use a customized macro to create trace messages.

Viewing Your Driver's Trace Messages

If you have added trace messages to your driver, the driver is a trace provider. You can use a trace controller, such as Tracelog, to control a trace session and create a trace log. You can use a trace consumer, such as Tracefmt, to view the messages.

For more information about how to use the software tracing tools, see Survey of Software Tracing Tools.

Viewing the UMDF Trace Log

The UMDF log file is %windir%\system32\LogFiles\WUDF\WUDFTrace.etl. You can view the UMDF log file by using either TraceView or Tracelog. Both tools require trace message format (TMF) files that format the trace log's messages. The TMF files are available in the WDK, under the \tools\tracing subdirectory. (In TraceView, UMDF appears as a named provider with the name of "UMDF-Framework Trace" or "Framework Trace", depending on the UMDF version.)

WDF Verifier enables you to send trace messages to both the UMDF trace log and your kernel debugger. (You should not send trace messages to your kernel debugger by using the -kd option in Tracelog, because Tracelog can disrupt trace logging within UMDF.)

You can also use the !wmitrace debugger extension to view the trace messages in the debugger:

  1. In WinDbg, attach to the instance of WUDFHost that hosts the driver. For more information, see How to Enable Debugging of a UMDF Driver.
  2. If your driver uses version 1.11 or later, and you are using the kernel debugger from Windows 8 or later, you can skip this step. If your driver uses a version of UMDF earlier than 1.11, use !wmitrace.tmffile or !wmitrace.searchpath to specify a platform-specific trace message format (.tmf) file, or a path to a .tmf file. The .tmf files are located in platform-specific subdirectories in the WDK.

  3. Use the !wmitrace.logdump command to display the contents of the trace buffers:
    !wmitrace.logdump WudfTrace
    

Controlling Trace Messages

You can control UMDF trace messages with the user interface that WDF Verifier provides, or by modifying registry values. You should use the WDF Verifier interface when possible, because the registry values might change in future versions of UMDF. In addition, you should not access these values within INF files or your driver's code.

Currently, you can modify the following registry values, which are located under the HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\WUDF registry key:

  • The LogEnable value controls whether UMDF creates a trace log for your driver. If this value is set to 1, UMDF creates a trace log.

  • The LogLevel value controls the amount of information that UMDF trace messages contain. The default value for LogLevel is 3, which causes UMDF trace messages to contain error and warning messages. Set this value to 7 to include error and warning messages, plus non-error informational messages. Set it to 15 to include all of the trace information that UMDF is capable of providing.

  • The LogKd value controls whether UMDF sends trace messages to your kernel debugger. If LogKd is set to 1, UMDF sends its trace messages to your kernel debugger.

  • The LogFlushPeriodSeconds value specifies how often, in seconds, trace messages are written to the trace log.

  • The LogMinidumpType value contains flags that specify the type of information that a mini-dump file, if produced, will contain. For more information about these flags, see the MINIDUMP_TYPE enumeration.

You might find additional registry values under the HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\WUDF registry key. You should not modify those values.

 

 

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