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GRANT Database Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Grants permissions on a database in SQL Server.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

Applies to: SQL Server (SQL Server 2008 through current version), Azure SQL Database.

GRANT <permission> [ ,...n ]  
    TO <database_principal> [ ,...n ] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]
    [ AS <database_principal> ]

<permission>::=   
permission | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ]

<database_principal> ::=  
    Database_user 
  | Database_role 
  | Application_role 
  | Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_User 
  | Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_Group 
  | Database_user_mapped_to_certificate 
  | Database_user_mapped_to_asymmetric_key 
  | Database_user_with_no_login  

permission

Specifies a permission that can be granted on a database. For a list of the permissions, see the Remarks section later in this topic.

ALL

This option does not grant all possible permissions. Granting ALL is equivalent to granting the following permissions: BACKUP DATABASE, BACKUP LOG, CREATE DATABASE, CREATE DEFAULT, CREATE FUNCTION, CREATE PROCEDURE, CREATE RULE, CREATE TABLE, and CREATE VIEW.

PRIVILEGES

Included for ISO compliance. Does not change the behavior of ALL.

WITH GRANT OPTION

Indicates that the principal will also be given the ability to grant the specified permission to other principals.

AS <database_principal>

Specifies a principal from which the principal executing this query derives its right to grant the permission.

Database_user

Specifies a database user.

Database_role

Specifies a database role.

Application_role

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2014.

Specifies an application role.

Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_User

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2014.

Specifies a database user mapped to a Windows user.

Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_Group

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2014.

Specifies a database user mapped to a Windows group.

Database_user_mapped_to_certificate

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2014.

Specifies a database user mapped to a certificate.

Database_user_mapped_to_asymmetric_key

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2014.

Specifies a database user mapped to an asymmetric key.

Database_user_with_no_login

Specifies a database user with no corresponding server-level principal.

Important note Important

A combination of ALTER and REFERENCE permissions in some cases could allow the grantee to view data or execute unauthorized functions. For example: A user with ALTER permission on a table and REFERENCE permission on a function can create a computed column over a function and have it be executed. In this case, the user must also have SELECT permission on the computed column.

A database is a securable contained by the server that is its parent in the permissions hierarchy. The most specific and limited permissions that can be granted on a database are listed in the following table, together with the more general permissions that include them by implication.

Database permission

Implied by database permission

Implied by server permission

ALTER

CONTROL

ALTER ANY DATABASE

ALTER ANY APPLICATION ROLE

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

ALTER ANY ASSEMBLY

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

ALTER ANY ASYMMETRIC KEY

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

ALTER ANY CERTIFICATE

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

ALTER ANY CONTRACT

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

ALTER ANY DATABASE AUDIT

ALTER

ALTER ANY SERVER AUDIT

ALTER ANY DATABASE DDL TRIGGER

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

ALTER ANY DATABASE EVENT NOTIFICATION

ALTER

ALTER ANY EVENT NOTIFICATION

ALTER ANY DATABASE EVENT SESSION

Applies to: Azure SQL Database.

ALTER

ALTER ANY EVENT SESSION

ALTER ANY DATASPACE

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

ALTER ANY FULLTEXT CATALOG

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

ALTER ANY MESSAGE TYPE

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

ALTER ANY REMOTE SERVICE BINDING

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

ALTER ANY ROLE

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

ALTER ANY ROUTE

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

ALTER ANY SCHEMA

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

ALTER ANY SERVICE

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

ALTER ANY SYMMETRIC KEY

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

ALTER ANY USER

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

AUTHENTICATE

CONTROL

AUTHENTICATE SERVER

BACKUP DATABASE

CONTROL

CONTROL SERVER

BACKUP LOG

CONTROL

CONTROL SERVER

CHECKPOINT

CONTROL

CONTROL SERVER

CONNECT

CONNECT REPLICATION

CONTROL SERVER

CONNECT REPLICATION

CONTROL

CONTROL SERVER

CONTROL

CONTROL

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE AGGREGATE

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE ASSEMBLY

ALTER ANY ASSEMBLY

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE ASYMMETRIC KEY

ALTER ANY ASYMMETRIC KEY

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE CERTIFICATE

ALTER ANY CERTIFICATE

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE CONTRACT

ALTER ANY CONTRACT

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE DATABASE

CONTROL

CREATE ANY DATABASE

CREATE DATABASE DDL EVENT NOTIFICATION

ALTER ANY DATABASE EVENT NOTIFICATION

CREATE DDL EVENT NOTIFICATION

CREATE DEFAULT

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE FULLTEXT CATALOG

ALTER ANY FULLTEXT CATALOG

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE FUNCTION

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE MESSAGE TYPE

ALTER ANY MESSAGE TYPE

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE PROCEDURE

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE QUEUE

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE REMOTE SERVICE BINDING

ALTER ANY REMOTE SERVICE BINDING

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE ROLE

ALTER ANY ROLE

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE ROUTE

ALTER ANY ROUTE

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE RULE

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE SCHEMA

ALTER ANY SCHEMA

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE SERVICE

ALTER ANY SERVICE

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY

ALTER ANY SYMMETRIC KEY

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE SYNONYM

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE TABLE

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE TYPE

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE VIEW

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

CREATE XML SCHEMA COLLECTION

ALTER

CONTROL SERVER

DELETE

CONTROL

CONTROL SERVER

EXECUTE

CONTROL

CONTROL SERVER

INSERT

CONTROL

CONTROL SERVER

KILL DATABASE CONNECTION

Applies to: Azure SQL Database.

CONTROL

ALTER ANY CONNECTION

REFERENCES

CONTROL

CONTROL SERVER

SELECT

CONTROL

CONTROL SERVER

SHOWPLAN

CONTROL

ALTER TRACE

SUBSCRIBE QUERY NOTIFICATIONS

CONTROL

CONTROL SERVER

TAKE OWNERSHIP

CONTROL

CONTROL SERVER

UPDATE

CONTROL

CONTROL SERVER

VIEW DATABASE STATE

CONTROL

VIEW SERVER STATE

VIEW DEFINITION

CONTROL

VIEW ANY DEFINITION

The grantor (or the principal specified with the AS option) must have either the permission itself with GRANT OPTION, or a higher permission that implies the permission being granted.

If you are using the AS option, the following additional requirements apply.

AS granting_principal

Additional permission required

Database user

IMPERSONATE permission on the user, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Database user mapped to a Windows login

IMPERSONATE permission on the user, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Database user mapped to a Windows Group

Membership in the Windows group, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Database user mapped to a certificate

Membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Database user mapped to an asymmetric key

Membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Database user not mapped to any server principal

IMPERSONATE permission on the user, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Database role

ALTER permission on the role, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Application role

ALTER permission on the role, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Object owners can grant permissions on the objects they own. Principals that have CONTROL permission on a securable can grant permission on that securable.

Grantees of CONTROL SERVER permission, such as members of the sysadmin fixed server role, can grant any permission on any securable in the server.

A. Granting permission to create tables

The following example grants CREATE TABLE permission on the AdventureWorks database to user MelanieK.

USE AdventureWorks;
GRANT CREATE TABLE TO MelanieK;
GO

B. Granting SHOWPLAN permission to an application role

The following example grants SHOWPLAN permission on the AdventureWorks2012 database to application role AuditMonitor.

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2014.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GRANT SHOWPLAN TO AuditMonitor;
GO

C. Granting CREATE VIEW with GRANT OPTION

The following example grants CREATE VIEW permission on the AdventureWorks2012 database to user CarmineEs with the right to grant CREATE VIEW to other principals.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GRANT CREATE VIEW TO CarmineEs WITH GRANT OPTION;
GO

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