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vsprintf_s, _vsprintf_s_l, vswprintf_s, _vswprintf_s_l 

Write formatted output using a pointer to a list of arguments. These are versions of vsprintf, _vsprintf_l, vswprintf, _vswprintf_l, __vswprintf_l with security enhancements as described in Security Enhancements in the CRT.


int vsprintf_s(
   char *buffer,
   size_t numberOfElements,
   const char *format,
   va_list argptr 
); 
int _vsprintf_s_l(
   char *buffer,
   size_t numberOfElements,
   const char *format,
   locale_t locale,
   va_list argptr 
); 
int vswprintf_s(
   wchar_t *buffer,
   size_t numberOfElements,
   const wchar_t *format,
   va_list argptr 
);
int _vswprintf_s_l(
   wchar_t *buffer,
   size_t numberOfElements,
   const wchar_t *format,
   locale_t locale,
   va_list argptr 
);
template <size_t size>
int vsprintf_s(
   char (&buffer)[size],
   const char *format,
   va_list argptr 
); // C++ only
template <size_t size>
int vswprintf_s(
   wchar_t (&buffer)[size],
   const wchar_t *format,
   va_list argptr 
); // C++ only

Parameters

buffer

Storage location for output.

numberOfElements

Size of buffer.

format

Format specification.

argptr

Pointer to list of arguments.

locale

The locale to use.

vsprintf_s and vswprintf_s return the number of characters written, not including the terminating null character, or a negative value if an output error occurs. If buffer or format is a null pointer, if count is zero, or if the format string contains invalid formatting characters, the invalid parameter handler is invoked, as described in Parameter Validation. If execution is allowed to continue, the functions return -1 and set errno to EINVAL.

For information on these and other error codes, see _doserrno, errno, _sys_errlist, and _sys_nerr.

Each of these functions takes a pointer to an argument list, and then formats and writes the given data to the memory pointed to by buffer.

In Visual C++ 2005, vswprintf_s conforms to the ISO C Standard for vswprintf, which requires the second parameter, count, of type size_t.

These functions differ from the non-secure versions only in that the secure versions support positional parameters. For more information, see printf_p Positional Parameters.

The versions of these functions with the _l suffix are identical except that they use the locale parameter passed in instead of the current thread locale.

In C++, using these functions is simplified by template overloads; the overloads can infer buffer length automatically (eliminating the need to specify a size argument) and they can automatically replace older, non-secure functions with their newer, secure counterparts. For more information, see Secure Template Overloads.

Generic-Text Routine Mappings
TCHAR.H routine _UNICODE & _MBCS not defined _MBCS defined _UNICODE defined

_vstprintf_s

vsprintf_s

vsprintf_s

vswprintf_s

_vstprintf_s_l

_vsprintf_s_l

_vsprintf_s_l

_vswprintf_s_l

Routine Required header Optional headers Compatibility

vsprintf_s, _vsprintf_s_l

<stdio.h> and <stdarg.h>

<varargs.h>*

Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, Windows Server 2003

vswprintf_s, _vswprintf_s_l

<stdio.h> or <wchar.h>, and <stdarg.h>

<varargs.h>*

Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, Windows Server 2003

* Required for UNIX V compatibility.

For additional compatibility information, see Compatibility in the Introduction.

// crt_vsprintf_s.c
// This program uses vsprintf_s to write to a buffer.
// The size of the buffer is determined by _vscprintf.

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdarg.h>

void test( char * format, ... )
{
   va_list args;
   int len;
   char * buffer;

   va_start( args, format );
   len = _vscprintf( format, args ) // _vscprintf doesn't count
                               + 1; // terminating '\0'
   buffer = malloc( len * sizeof(char) );
   vsprintf_s( buffer, len, format, args );
   puts( buffer );
   free( buffer );
}

int main( void )
{
   test( "%d %c %d", 123, '<', 456 );
   test( "%s", "This is a string" );
}

Output

123 < 456
This is a string

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