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Encoder Class

Converts a set of characters into a sequence of bytes.

Namespace: System.Text
Assembly: mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

[SerializableAttribute] 
[ComVisibleAttribute(true)] 
public abstract class Encoder
/** @attribute SerializableAttribute() */ 
/** @attribute ComVisibleAttribute(true) */ 
public abstract class Encoder
SerializableAttribute 
ComVisibleAttribute(true) 
public abstract class Encoder

Encoding is the process of transforming a set of characters into a sequence of bytes. Decoding is the reverse; it is the process of transforming a sequence of encoded bytes into a set of characters.

An Encoder maintains state information between successive calls to GetBytes so it can correctly encode character sequences that span blocks. The Encoder also preserves trailing characters at the end of data blocks and uses the trailing characters in the next encoding operation. For example, a data block might end with an unmatched high-surrogate, and the matching low-surrogate might be in the next data block. Therefore, the Decoder and the Encoder classes are useful for network transmission and file operations, because those operations often deal with blocks of data instead of a complete data stream.

The GetByteCount method determines how many bytes result in encoding a set of Unicode characters, and the GetBytes method performs the actual encoding.

To obtain an instance of an implementation of this class, use the GetEncoder method of an Encoding implementation.

Version Considerations

A Decoder or Encoder object can be serialized during a conversion operation. The state of the object is retained if it is deserialized in the same version of the .NET Framework, but lost if it is deserialized in another version.

Notes to Inheritors When you inherit from this class, you must override all the members.

The following code example demonstrates how to convert an array of Unicode characters into blocks of bytes using a specified encoding. For comparison, the array of characters is first encoded using a UTF7Encoding. Next, the array of characters is encoded using an Encoder.

using System;
using System.Text;

class EncoderTest {
    public static void Main() {
        // The characters to encode.
        Char[] chars = new Char[] {
            '\u0023', // #
            '\u0025', // %
            '\u03a0', // Pi
            '\u03a3'  // Sigma
        };

        // Encode characters using an Encoding object.
        Encoding encoding = Encoding.UTF7;
        Console.WriteLine("Using Encoding\n--------------");

        // Encode complete array for comparison.
        Byte[] allCharactersFromEncoding = encoding.GetBytes(chars);
        Console.WriteLine("All characters encoded:");
        ShowArray(allCharactersFromEncoding);

        // Encode characters, one-by-one.
        // The Encoding object will NOT maintain state between calls.
        Byte[] firstchar = encoding.GetBytes(chars, 0, 1);
        Console.WriteLine("First character:");
        ShowArray(firstchar);

        Byte[] secondchar = encoding.GetBytes(chars, 1, 1);
        Console.WriteLine("Second character:");
        ShowArray(secondchar);

        Byte[] thirdchar = encoding.GetBytes(chars, 2, 1);
        Console.WriteLine("Third character:");
        ShowArray(thirdchar);

        Byte[] fourthchar = encoding.GetBytes(chars, 3, 1);
        Console.WriteLine("Fourth character:");
        ShowArray(fourthchar);


        // Now, encode characters using an Encoder object.
        Encoder encoder = encoding.GetEncoder();
        Console.WriteLine("Using Encoder\n-------------");

        // Encode complete array for comparison.
        Byte[] allCharactersFromEncoder = new Byte[encoder.GetByteCount(chars, 0, chars.Length, true)];
        encoder.GetBytes(chars, 0, chars.Length, allCharactersFromEncoder, 0, true);
        Console.WriteLine("All characters encoded:");
        ShowArray(allCharactersFromEncoder);

        // Do not flush state; i.e. maintain state between calls.
        bool bFlushState = false;

        // Encode characters one-by-one.
        // By maintaining state, the Encoder will not store extra bytes in the output.
        Byte[] firstcharNoFlush = new Byte[encoder.GetByteCount(chars, 0, 1, bFlushState)];
        encoder.GetBytes(chars, 0, 1, firstcharNoFlush, 0, bFlushState);
        Console.WriteLine("First character:");
        ShowArray(firstcharNoFlush);

        Byte[] secondcharNoFlush = new Byte[encoder.GetByteCount(chars, 1, 1, bFlushState)];
        encoder.GetBytes(chars, 1, 1, secondcharNoFlush, 0, bFlushState);
        Console.WriteLine("Second character:");
        ShowArray(secondcharNoFlush);

        Byte[] thirdcharNoFlush = new Byte[encoder.GetByteCount(chars, 2, 1, bFlushState)];
        encoder.GetBytes(chars, 2, 1, thirdcharNoFlush, 0, bFlushState);
        Console.WriteLine("Third character:");
        ShowArray(thirdcharNoFlush);

        // Must flush state on last call to GetBytes().
        bFlushState = true;
        
        Byte[] fourthcharNoFlush = new Byte[encoder.GetByteCount(chars, 3, 1, bFlushState)];
        encoder.GetBytes(chars, 3, 1, fourthcharNoFlush, 0, bFlushState);
        Console.WriteLine("Fourth character:");
        ShowArray(fourthcharNoFlush);
    }

    public static void ShowArray(Array theArray) {
        foreach (Object o in theArray) {
            Console.Write("[{0}]", o);
        }
        Console.WriteLine("\n");
    }
}

import System.*;
import System.Text.*;

class EncoderTest
{
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        // The characters to encode.
        char chars[] = new char[] {
            '\u0023', // #
            '\u0025', // %
            '\u03a0', // Pi
            '\u03a3'  // Sigma
        };

        // Encode characters using an Encoding object.
        Encoding encoding = Encoding.get_UTF7();
        Console.WriteLine("Using Encoding\n--------------");

        // Encode complete array for comparison.
        ubyte allCharactersFromEncoding[] = encoding.GetBytes(chars);
        Console.WriteLine("All characters encoded:");
        ShowArray(allCharactersFromEncoding);

        // Encode characters, one-by-one.
        // The Encoding object will NOT maintain state between calls.
        ubyte firstchar[] = encoding.GetBytes(chars, 0, 1);
        Console.WriteLine("First character:");
        ShowArray(firstchar);

        ubyte secondchar[] = encoding.GetBytes(chars, 1, 1);
        Console.WriteLine("Second character:");
        ShowArray(secondchar);

        ubyte thirdchar[] = encoding.GetBytes(chars, 2, 1);
        Console.WriteLine("Third character:");
        ShowArray(thirdchar);

        ubyte fourthchar[] = encoding.GetBytes(chars, 3, 1);
        Console.WriteLine("Fourth character:");
        ShowArray(fourthchar);

        // Now, encode characters using an Encoder object.
        Encoder encoder = encoding.GetEncoder();
        Console.WriteLine("Using Encoder\n-------------");

        // Encode complete array for comparison.
        ubyte allCharactersFromEncoder[] = new 
                ubyte[encoder.GetByteCount(chars, 0, chars.length, true)];
        encoder.GetBytes(chars, 0, chars.length,
                allCharactersFromEncoder, 0, true);
        Console.WriteLine("All characters encoded:");
        ShowArray(allCharactersFromEncoder);

        // Do not flush state; i.e. maintain state between calls.
        boolean bFlushState = false;

        // Encode characters one-by-one.
        // By maintaining state, the Encoder will not store 
        // extra bytes in the output.
        ubyte firstcharNoFlush[] = new 
                ubyte[encoder.GetByteCount(chars, 0, 1, bFlushState)];
        encoder.GetBytes(chars, 0, 1, firstcharNoFlush, 0, bFlushState);
        Console.WriteLine("First character:");
        ShowArray(firstcharNoFlush);

        ubyte secondcharNoFlush[] = new 
                ubyte[encoder.GetByteCount(chars, 1, 1, bFlushState)];
        encoder.GetBytes(chars, 1, 1, secondcharNoFlush, 0, bFlushState);
        Console.WriteLine("Second character:");
        ShowArray(secondcharNoFlush);

        ubyte thirdcharNoFlush[] = new 
                ubyte[encoder.GetByteCount(chars, 2, 1, bFlushState)];
        encoder.GetBytes(chars, 2, 1, thirdcharNoFlush, 0, bFlushState);
        Console.WriteLine("Third character:");
        ShowArray(thirdcharNoFlush);

        // Must flush state on last call to GetBytes().
        bFlushState = true;

        ubyte fourthcharNoFlush[] = new 
                ubyte[encoder.GetByteCount(chars, 3, 1, bFlushState)];
        encoder.GetBytes(chars, 3, 1, fourthcharNoFlush, 0, bFlushState);
        Console.WriteLine("Fourth character:");
        ShowArray(fourthcharNoFlush);
    } //main

    public static void ShowArray(Array theArray)
    {
        Object o = null;
        for(int iCtr = 0; iCtr < theArray.get_Length(); iCtr++) {
            o = theArray.get_Item(iCtr);
            Console.Write("[{0}]", o);
        }
        Console.WriteLine("\n");
    } //ShowArray
} //EncoderTest

System.Object
  System.Text.Encoder

Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.

Windows 98, Windows 2000 SP4, Windows CE, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows Mobile for Pocket PC, Windows Mobile for Smartphone, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Starter Edition

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see System Requirements.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 2.0, 1.1, 1.0

.NET Compact Framework

Supported in: 2.0, 1.0

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