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FtpWebRequest Class

Implements a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) client.

Namespace: System.Net
Assembly: System (in system.dll)

public ref class FtpWebRequest sealed : public WebRequest
public final class FtpWebRequest extends WebRequest
public final class FtpWebRequest extends WebRequest
Not applicable.

To obtain an instance of FtpWebRequest, use the Create method. You can also use the WebClient class to upload and download information from an FTP server. Using either of these approaches, when you specify a network resource that uses the FTP scheme (for example, "ftp://contoso.com") the FtpWebRequest class provides the ability to programmatically interact with FTP servers.

The URI may be relative or absolute. If the URI is of the form "ftp://contoso.com/%2fpath" (%2f is an escaped '/'), then the URI is absolute, and the current directory is /path. If, however, the URI is of the form "ftp://contoso.com/path", first the .NET Framework logs into the FTP server (using the user name and password set by the Credentials property), then the current directory is set to <UserLoginDirectory>/path.

You must have a valid user name and password for the server or the server must allow anonymous logon. You can specify the credentials used to connect to the server by setting the Credentials property or you can include them in the UserInfo portion of the URI passed to the Create method. If you include UserInfo information in the URI, the Credentials property is set to a new network credential with the specified user name and password information.

Caution noteCaution:

Unless the EnableSsl property is true, all data and commands, including your user name and password information, are sent to the server in clear text. Anyone monitoring network traffic can view your credentials and use them to connect to the server. If you are connecting to an FTP server that requires credentials and supports Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), you should set EnableSsl to true.

You must have WebPermission to access the FTP resource; otherwise, a SecurityException exception is thrown.

Specify the FTP command to send to the server by setting the Method property to a value defined in the WebRequestMethods.Ftp structure. To transmit text data, change the UseBinary property from its default value (true) to false. For details and restrictions, see Method.

When using an FtpWebRequest object to upload a file to a server, you must write the file content to the request stream obtained by calling the GetRequestStream method or its asynchronous counterparts, the BeginGetRequestStream and EndGetRequestStream methods. You must write to the stream and close the stream before sending the request.

Requests are sent to the server by calling the GetResponse method or its asynchronous counterparts, the BeginGetResponse and EndGetResponse methods. When the requested operation completes, an FtpWebResponse object is returned. The FtpWebResponse object provides the status of the operation and any data downloaded from the server.

You can set a time-out value for reading or writing to the server by using the ReadWriteTimeout property. If the time-out period is exceeded, the calling method throws a WebException with WebExceptionStatus set to Timeout.

When downloading a file from an FTP server, if the command was successful, the contents of the requested file are available in the response object's stream. You can access this stream by calling the GetResponseStream method. For more information, see FtpWebResponse.

If the Proxy property is set, either directly or in a configuration file, communications with the FTP server are made through the specified proxy. If the specified proxy is an HTTP proxy, only the DownloadFile, ListDirectory, and ListDirectoryDetails commands are supported.

Only downloaded binary content is cached; that is, content received using the DownloadFile command with the UseBinary property set to true.

Multiple FtpWebRequests reuse existing connections, if possible.

For more information about the FTP protocol, see RFC 959, "File Transfer Protocol," available at http://www.rfc-editor.org/.

The following code example demonstrates deleting a file from an FTP server.

public static bool DeleteFileOnServer(Uri serverUri)
{
    // The serverUri parameter should use the ftp:// scheme.
    // It contains the name of the server file that is to be deleted.
    // Example: ftp://contoso.com/someFile.txt.
    // 
    
    if (serverUri.Scheme != Uri.UriSchemeFtp)
    {
        return false;
    }
    // Get the object used to communicate with the server.
    FtpWebRequest request = (FtpWebRequest)WebRequest.Create(serverUri);
    request.Method = WebRequestMethods.Ftp.DeleteFile;
 
    FtpWebResponse response = (FtpWebResponse) request.GetResponse();
    Console.WriteLine("Delete status: {0}",response.StatusDescription);  
    response.Close();
    return true;
}

The following code example demonstrates downloading a file from an FTP server by using the WebClient class.

public static bool DisplayFileFromServer(Uri serverUri)
{
    // The serverUri parameter should start with the ftp:// scheme.
    if (serverUri.Scheme != Uri.UriSchemeFtp)
    {
        return false;
    }
    // Get the object used to communicate with the server.
    WebClient request = new WebClient();
    
    // This example assumes the FTP site uses anonymous logon.
    request.Credentials = new NetworkCredential ("anonymous","janeDoe@contoso.com");
    try 
    {
        byte [] newFileData = request.DownloadData (serverUri.ToString());
        string fileString = System.Text.Encoding.UTF8.GetString(newFileData);
        Console.WriteLine(fileString);
    }
    catch (WebException e)
    {
        Console.WriteLine(e.ToString());
    }
    return true;
}

The following code example demonstrates using asynchronous operations to upload a file to an FTP server.

#using <System.dll>

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Net;
using namespace System::Threading;
using namespace System::IO;

public ref class FtpState
{
private:
   ManualResetEvent^ wait;
   FtpWebRequest^ request;
   String^ fileName;
   Exception^ operationException;
   String^ status;

public:
   FtpState()
   {
      wait = gcnew ManualResetEvent( false );
   }

   property ManualResetEvent^ OperationComplete 
   {
      ManualResetEvent^ get()
      {
         return wait;
      }

   }

   property FtpWebRequest^ Request 
   {
      FtpWebRequest^ get()
      {
         return request;
      }

      void set( FtpWebRequest^ value )
      {
         request = value;
      }

   }

   property String^ FileName 
   {
      String^ get()
      {
         return fileName;
      }

      void set( String^ value )
      {
         fileName = value;
      }

   }

   property Exception^ OperationException 
   {
      Exception^ get()
      {
         return operationException;
      }

      void set( Exception^ value )
      {
         operationException = value;
      }

   }

   property String^ StatusDescription 
   {
      String^ get()
      {
         return status;
      }

      void set( String^ value )
      {
         status = value;
      }

   }
};

public ref class AsynchronousFtpUpLoader
{
public:

   // Command line arguments are two strings:
   // 1. The url that is the name of the file being uploaded to the server.
   // 2. The name of the file on the local machine.
   //
   static void Main()
   {
      array<String^>^args = Environment::GetCommandLineArgs();

      // Create a Uri instance with the specified URI string.
      // If the URI is not correctly formed, the Uri constructor
      // will throw an exception.
      ManualResetEvent^ waitObject;
      Uri^ target = gcnew Uri( args[ 1 ] );
      String^ fileName = args[ 2 ];
      FtpState^ state = gcnew FtpState;
      FtpWebRequest ^ request = dynamic_cast<FtpWebRequest^>(WebRequest::Create( target ));
      request->Method = WebRequestMethods::Ftp::UploadFile;

      // This example uses anonymous logon.
      // The request is anonymous by default; the credential does not have to be specified. 
      // The example specifies the credential only to
      // control how actions are logged on the server.
      request->Credentials = gcnew NetworkCredential( "anonymous","janeDoe@contoso.com" );

      // Store the request in the object that we pass into the
      // asynchronous operations.
      state->Request = request;
      state->FileName = fileName;

      // Get the event to wait on.
      waitObject = state->OperationComplete;

      // Asynchronously get the stream for the file contents.
      request->BeginGetRequestStream( gcnew AsyncCallback( EndGetStreamCallback ), state );

      // Block the current thread until all operations are complete.
      waitObject->WaitOne();

      // The operations either completed or threw an exception.
      if ( state->OperationException != nullptr )
      {
         throw state->OperationException;
      }
      else
      {
         Console::WriteLine( "The operation completed - {0}", state->StatusDescription );
      }
   }

private:
   static void EndGetStreamCallback( IAsyncResult^ ar )
   {
      FtpState^ state = dynamic_cast<FtpState^>(ar->AsyncState);
      Stream^ requestStream = nullptr;

      // End the asynchronous call to get the request stream.
      try
      {
         requestStream = state->Request->EndGetRequestStream( ar );

         // Copy the file contents to the request stream.
         const int bufferLength = 2048;
         array<Byte>^buffer = gcnew array<Byte>(bufferLength);
         int count = 0;
         int readBytes = 0;
         FileStream^ stream = File::OpenRead( state->FileName );
         do
         {
            readBytes = stream->Read( buffer, 0, bufferLength );
            requestStream->Write( buffer, 0, bufferLength );
            count += readBytes;
         }
         while ( readBytes != 0 );
         Console::WriteLine( "Writing {0} bytes to the stream.", count );

         // IMPORTANT: Close the request stream before sending the request.
         requestStream->Close();

         // Asynchronously get the response to the upload request.
         state->Request->BeginGetResponse( gcnew AsyncCallback( EndGetResponseCallback ), state );
      }
      // Return exceptions to the main application thread.
      catch ( Exception^ e ) 
      {
         Console::WriteLine( "Could not get the request stream." );
         state->OperationException = e;
         state->OperationComplete->Set();
         return;
      }
   }

   // The EndGetResponseCallback method  
   // completes a call to BeginGetResponse.
   static void EndGetResponseCallback( IAsyncResult^ ar )
   {
      FtpState^ state = dynamic_cast<FtpState^>(ar->AsyncState);
      FtpWebResponse ^ response = nullptr;
      try
      {
         response = dynamic_cast<FtpWebResponse^>(state->Request->EndGetResponse( ar ));
         response->Close();
         state->StatusDescription = response->StatusDescription;

         // Signal the main application thread that 
         // the operation is complete.
         state->OperationComplete->Set();
      }
      // Return exceptions to the main application thread.
      catch ( Exception^ e ) 
      {
         Console::WriteLine( "Error getting response." );
         state->OperationException = e;
         state->OperationComplete->Set();
      }
   }
};

int main()
{
   AsynchronousFtpUpLoader::Main();
}

  • WebPermission  for accessing the resource referenced by this request. Associated enumeration: Connect.

System.Object
   System.MarshalByRefObject
     System.Net.WebRequest
      System.Net.FtpWebRequest

Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.

Windows 98, Windows Server 2000 SP4, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Starter Edition

The Microsoft .NET Framework 3.0 is supported on Windows Vista, Microsoft Windows XP SP2, and Windows Server 2003 SP1.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 3.0, 2.0

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