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Convert Class

Converts a base data type to another base data type.

Namespace: System
Assembly: mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

'Declaration
Public NotInheritable Class Convert
'Usage
The members of a static class are accessed directly without an instance of the class.
public final class Convert
public final class Convert

This class returns a type whose value is equivalent to the value of a specified type. The supported base types are Boolean, Char, SByte, Byte, Int16, Int32, Int64, UInt16, UInt32, UInt64, Single, Double, Decimal, DateTime and String.

A conversion method exists to convert every base type to every other base type. However, the actual conversion operation performed falls into three categories:

  • A conversion from a type to itself simply returns that type. No conversion is actually performed.

  • A conversion which cannot yield a meaningful result throws InvalidCastException. No conversion is actually performed. An exception is thrown for conversions from Char to Boolean, Single, Double, Decimal or DateTime, and from those types to Char. An exception is thrown for conversions from DateTime to any type except String, and from any type, except String, to DateTime.

  • Any base type, other than those described above, can be converted to and from any other base type.

An exception will not be thrown if the conversion of a numeric type results in a loss of precision (that is, the loss of some least significant digits). However, an exception will be thrown if the result is larger than can be represented by the particular conversion method's return value type.

For example, when a Double is converted to a Single, a loss of precision might occur but no exception is thrown. However, if the magnitude of the Double is too large to be represented by a Single, an overflow exception is thrown.

A set of methods support converting an array of bytes to and from a String or array of Unicode characters consisting of base 64 digit characters. Data expressed as base 64 digits can be easily conveyed over data channels that can only transmit 7-bit characters.

Some of the methods in this class take a parameter object that implements the IFormatProvider interface. This parameter can supply culture-specific formatting information to assist the conversion process. The base value types ignore this parameter, but any user-defined type that implements IConvertible can honor it.

For more information about the base value types, see the appropriate topic listed in the See Also section.

The following code example demonstrates some of the conversion methods in the Convert class, including ToInt32, ToBoolean, and ToString.

Dim dNumber As Double
dNumber = 23.15

Try
   ' Returns 23
   Dim iNumber As Integer
   iNumber = System.Convert.ToInt32(dNumber)
Catch exp As System.OverflowException
   System.Console.WriteLine("Overflow in double to int conversion.")
End Try

' Returns True
Dim bNumber As Boolean
bNumber = System.Convert.ToBoolean(dNumber)

' Returns "23.15"
Dim strNumber As String
strNumber = System.Convert.ToString(dNumber)

Try
   ' Returns '2'
   Dim chrNumber As Char
   chrNumber = System.Convert.ToChar(strNumber.Chars(1))
Catch exp As System.ArgumentNullException
   System.Console.WriteLine("String is null.")
Catch exp As System.FormatException
   System.Console.WriteLine("String length is greater than 1.")
End Try

' System.Console.ReadLine() returns a string and it
' must be converted.
Dim newInteger As Integer
newInteger = 0
Try
   System.Console.WriteLine("Enter an integer:")
   newInteger = System.Convert.ToInt32(System.Console.ReadLine())
Catch exp As System.ArgumentNullException
   System.Console.WriteLine("String is null.")
Catch exp As System.FormatException
   System.Console.WriteLine("String does not consist of an " + _
       "optional sign followed by a series of digits.")
Catch exp As System.OverflowException
   System.Console.WriteLine("Overflow in string to int conversion.")
End Try

System.Console.WriteLine("Your integer as a double is {0}", _
                         System.Convert.ToDouble(newInteger))

double dNumber = 23.15;

try {        
    // Returns 23
    int iNumber = System.Convert.ToInt32(dNumber);
}
catch (System.OverflowException exp) {        
    System.Console.WriteLine("Overflow in double to int conversion.");
}

// Returns True
boolean bNumber = System.Convert.ToBoolean(dNumber);

// Returns "23.15"
String strNumber = System.Convert.ToString(dNumber);

try {        
    // Returns '2'
    char chrNumber = System.Convert.ToChar(strNumber.get_Chars(0));
}
catch (System.ArgumentNullException exp) {        
    System.Console.WriteLine("String is null");
}
catch (System.FormatException exp) {        
    System.Console.WriteLine("String length is greater than 1.");
}

// System.Console.ReadLine() returns a string and it
// must be converted.
int newInteger = 0;

try {        
    System.Console.WriteLine("Enter an integer:");
    newInteger = System.Convert.ToInt32(System.Console.ReadLine());
}
catch (System.ArgumentNullException exp) {        
    System.Console.WriteLine("String is null.");
}
catch (System.FormatException exp) {        
    System.Console.WriteLine(("String does not consist of an " 
        + "optional sign followed by a series of digits."));
}
catch (System.OverflowException exp) {        
    System.Console.WriteLine("Overflow in string to int conversion.");
}
System.Console.WriteLine("Your integer as a double is {0}", 
    System.Convert.ToString(System.Convert.ToDouble(newInteger)));

The following code example demonstrates several of the conversion methods in the Convert class.

' Sample for the Convert class summary.
Imports System

Class Sample
   Public Shared Sub Main()
      Dim nl As String = Environment.NewLine
      Dim str As String = "{0}Return the Int64 equivalent of the following base types:{0}"
      Dim xBool As Boolean = False
      Dim xShort As Short = 1
      Dim xInt As Integer = 2
      Dim xLong As Long = 3
      Dim xSingle As Single = 4F
      Dim xDouble As Double = 5.0
      Dim xDecimal As Decimal = 6D
      Dim xString As String = "7"
      Dim xChar As Char = "8"c ' '8' = hexadecimal 38 = decimal 56
      Dim xByte As Byte = 9
      
      '  The following types are not CLS-compliant.
      ' Dim xUshort As System.UInt16 = 120
      ' Dim xUint As System.UInt32 = 121
      ' Dim xUlong As System.UInt64 = 122
      ' Dim xSbyte As System.SByte = 123
      
      '  The following type cannot be converted to an Int64.
      '  Dim xDateTime As System.DateTime = DateTime.Now

      Console.WriteLine(str, nl)
      Console.WriteLine("Boolean:  {0}", Convert.ToInt64(xBool))
      Console.WriteLine("Int16:    {0}", Convert.ToInt64(xShort))
      Console.WriteLine("Int32:    {0}", Convert.ToInt64(xInt))
      Console.WriteLine("Int64:    {0}", Convert.ToInt64(xLong))
      Console.WriteLine("Single:   {0}", Convert.ToInt64(xSingle))
      Console.WriteLine("Double:   {0}", Convert.ToInt64(xDouble))
      Console.WriteLine("Decimal:  {0}", Convert.ToInt64(xDecimal))
      Console.WriteLine("String:   {0}", Convert.ToInt64(xString))
      Console.WriteLine("Char:     {0}", Convert.ToInt64(xChar))
      Console.WriteLine("Byte:     {0}", Convert.ToInt64(xByte))
      Console.WriteLine("DateTime: There is no example of this conversion because")
      Console.WriteLine("          a DateTime cannot be converted to an Int64.")
      '
      Console.Write("{0}The following types are not supported: ", nl)
      Console.WriteLine("UInt16, UInt32, UInt64, and SByte")
   End Sub 'Main
End Class 'Sample
'
'This example produces the following results:
'
'Return the Int64 equivalent of the following base types:
'
'Boolean:  0
'Int16:    1
'Int32:    2
'Int64:    3
'Single:   4
'Double:   5
'Decimal:  6
'String:   7
'Char:     56
'Byte:     9
'DateTime: There is no example of this conversion because
'          a DateTime cannot be converted to an Int64.
'
'The following types are not supported: UInt16, UInt32, UInt64, and SByte
'

Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.

Windows 98, Windows 2000 SP4, Windows CE, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows Mobile for Pocket PC, Windows Mobile for Smartphone, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Starter Edition

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see System Requirements.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 2.0, 1.1, 1.0

.NET Compact Framework

Supported in: 2.0, 1.0
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