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.MODEL

Initializes the program memory model.

.MODEL memorymodel [[, langtype]] [[, stackoption]]

memorymodel

Required parameter that determines the size of code and data pointers.

langtype

Optional parameter that sets the calling and naming conventions for procedures and public symbols.

stackoption

Optional parameter.

stackoption is not used if memorymodel is FLAT.

Specifying NEARSTACK groups the stack segment into a single physical segment (DGROUP) along with data. The stack segment register (SS) is assumed to hold the same address as the data segment register (DS). FARSTACK does not group the stack with DGROUP; thus SS does not equal DS.

.MODEL is not used in MASM for x64 (ml64.exe).

The following table lists the possible values for each parameter when targeting 16-bit and 32-bit platforms:

Parameter

32-bit values

16-bit values (support for legacy 16-bit development)

memorymodel

FLAT

TINY, SMALL, COMPACT, MEDIUM, LARGE, HUGE, FLAT

langtype

C, STDCALL

C, BASIC, FORTRAN, PASCAL, SYSCALL, STDCALL

stackoption

Not used

NEARSTACK, FARSTACK

For MASM-related samples, download the Compiler samples from Visual C++ Samples and Related Documentation for Visual Studio 2010.

The following example demonstrates the use of the .MODEL directive.

; file simple.asm
; For x86 (32-bit), assemble with debug information: 
;   ml -c -Zi simple.asm
; For x64 (64-bit), assemble with debug information: 
;   ml64 -c -DX64 -Zi simple.asm
;
; In this sample, the 'X64' define excludes source not used 
;  when targeting the x64 architecture
 
ifndef X64
.686p
.XMM
.model flat, C
endif
 
.data
; user data
 
.code
; user code
 
fxn PROC public
  xor eax, eax ; zero function return value
  ret
fxn ENDP
 
end

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