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Creating a User-Defined Type

To create a user-defined type (UDT) capable of being installed in SQL Server, you must first create a class in one of the supported .NET Framework programming languages, such as Visual C# or Visual Basic, which conforms to the specifications for creating UDTs. The class can then be compiled as a dynamic-link library (DLL), which can be loaded in SQL Server. You can also create and deploy UDTs using Visual Studio.

The ability to execute common language runtime (CLR) code is set to OFF by default in SQL Server. The CLR can be enabled by using the sp_configure system stored procedure, as shown in the following Transact-SQL statements:

sp_configure 'clr enabled', 1
Reconfigure

For more information, see Working with CLR User-defined Types.

User-Defined Type Requirements

Describes the requirements for coding user-defined types.

Coding User-Defined Types

Demonstrates coding techniques involved in creating user-defined types.

The following code listing defines the Point UDT, which is described in detail in Coding User-Defined Types.

The complete code listings for the other examples discussed in this section can be obtained by installing the CLR samples. For instructions on installing these samples, see Considerations for Installing SQL Server Samples and Sample Databases.

C#

using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Data.SqlTypes;
using Microsoft.SqlServer.Server;
using System.Text;

[Serializable]
[Microsoft.SqlServer.Server.SqlUserDefinedType(Format.Native,
     IsByteOrdered=true, ValidationMethodName = "ValidatePoint")]
public struct Point : INullable
{
    private bool is_Null;
    private Int32 _x;
    private Int32 _y;

    public bool IsNull
    {
        get
        {
            return (is_Null);
        }
    }

    public static Point Null
    {
        get
        {
            Point pt = new Point();
            pt.is_Null = true;
            return pt;
        }
    }

    // Use StringBuilder to provide string representation of UDT.
    public override string ToString()
    {
        // Since InvokeIfReceiverIsNull defaults to 'true'
        // this test is unneccesary if Point is only being called
        // from SQL.
        if (this.IsNull)
            return "NULL";
        else
        {
            StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder();
            builder.Append(_x);
            builder.Append(",");
            builder.Append(_y);
            return builder.ToString();
        }
    }

    [SqlMethod(OnNullCall = false)]
    public static Point Parse(SqlString s)
    {
        // With OnNullCall=false, this check is unnecessary if 
        // Point only called from SQL.
        if (s.IsNull)
            return Null;

        // Parse input string to separate out points.
        Point pt = new Point();
        string[] xy = s.Value.Split(",".ToCharArray());
        pt.X = Int32.Parse(xy[0]);
        pt.Y = Int32.Parse(xy[1]);

        // Call ValidatePoint to enforce validation
        // for string conversions.
        if (!pt.ValidatePoint()) 
            throw new ArgumentException("Invalid XY coordinate values.");
        return pt;
    }

    // X and Y coordinates exposed as properties.
    public Int32 X
    {
        get
        {
            return this._x;
        }
        // Call ValidatePoint to ensure valid range of Point values.
        set 
        {
            Int32 temp = _x;
            _x = value;
            if (!ValidatePoint())
            {
                _x = temp;
                throw new ArgumentException("Invalid X coordinate value.");
            }
        }
    }

    public Int32 Y
    {
        get
        {
            return this._y;
        }
        set
        {
            Int32 temp = _y;
            _y = value;
            if (!ValidatePoint())
            {
                _y = temp;
                throw new ArgumentException("Invalid Y coordinate value.");
            }
        }
    }

    // Validation method to enforce valid X and Y values.
    private bool ValidatePoint()
    {
        // Allow only zero or positive integers for X and Y coordinates.
        if ((_x >= 0) && (_y >= 0))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    // Distance from 0 to Point method.
    [SqlMethod(OnNullCall = false)]
    public Double Distance()
    {
        return DistanceFromXY(0, 0);
    }

    // Distance from Point to the specified point method.
    [SqlMethod(OnNullCall = false)]
    public Double DistanceFrom(Point pFrom)
    {
        return DistanceFromXY(pFrom.X, pFrom.Y);
    }

    // Distance from Point to the specified x and y values method.
    [SqlMethod(OnNullCall = false)]
    public Double DistanceFromXY(Int32 iX, Int32 iY)
    {
        return Math.Sqrt(Math.Pow(iX - _x, 2.0) + Math.Pow(iY - _y, 2.0));
    }
}

Visual Basic

Option Explicit On
Option Strict On

Imports System
Imports System.Data.SqlTypes
Imports Microsoft.SqlServer.Server
Imports System.Text

<Serializable(), SqlUserDefinedTypeAttribute(Format.Native, _
  IsByteOrdered:=True, _
  ValidationMethodName:="ValidatePoint")> _
  Public Structure Point
    Implements INullable

    Private is_Null As Boolean
    Private _x As Int32
    Private _y As Int32

    Public ReadOnly Property IsNull() As Boolean _
       Implements INullable.IsNull
        Get
            Return (is_Null)
        End Get
    End Property

    Public Shared ReadOnly Property Null() As Point
        Get
            Dim pt As New Point
            pt.is_Null = True
            Return (pt)
        End Get
    End Property

    ' Use StringBuilder to provide string representation of UDT.
    Public Overrides Function ToString() As String
        ' Since InvokeIfReceiverIsNull defaults to 'true'
        ' this test is unneccesary if Point is only being called
        ' from SQL.
        If Me.IsNull Then
            Return "NULL"
        Else
            Dim builder As StringBuilder = New StringBuilder
            builder.Append(_x)
            builder.Append(",")
            builder.Append(_y)
            Return builder.ToString
        End If
    End Function

    <SqlMethod(OnNullCall:=False)> _
    Public Shared Function Parse(ByVal s As SqlString) As Point
        ' With OnNullCall=False, this check is unnecessary if
        ' Point only being called from SQL.
        If s.IsNull Then
            Return Null
        End If

        ' Parse input string here to separate out points.
        Dim pt As New Point()
        Dim xy() As String = s.Value.Split(",".ToCharArray())
        pt.X = Int32.Parse(xy(0))
        pt.Y = Int32.Parse(xy(1))

        ' Call ValidatePoint to enforce validation
        ' for string conversions.
        If Not pt.ValidatePoint() Then
            Throw New ArgumentException("Invalid XY coordinate values.")
        End If
        Return pt
    End Function

    ' X and Y coordinates are exposed as properties.
    Public Property X() As Int32
        Get
            Return (Me._x)
        End Get

        Set(ByVal Value As Int32)
            Dim temp As Int32 = _x
            _x = Value
            If Not ValidatePoint() Then
                _x = temp
                Throw New ArgumentException("Invalid X coordinate value.")
            End If
        End Set
    End Property

    Public Property Y() As Int32
        Get
            Return (Me._y)
        End Get

        Set(ByVal Value As Int32)
            Dim temp As Int32 = _y
            _y = Value
            If Not ValidatePoint() Then
                _y = temp
                Throw New ArgumentException("Invalid Y coordinate value.")
            End If
        End Set
    End Property

    ' Validation method to enforce valid X and Y values.
    Private Function ValidatePoint() As Boolean
        ' Allow only zero or positive integers for X and Y coordinates.
        If (_x >= 0) And (_y >= 0) Then
            Return True
        Else
            Return False
        End If
    End Function

    ' Distance from 0 to Point method.
    <SqlMethod(OnNullCall:=False)> _
  Public Function Distance() As Double
        Return DistanceFromXY(0, 0)
    End Function

    ' Distance from Point to the specified point method.
    <SqlMethod(OnNullCall:=False)> _
    Public Function DistanceFrom(ByVal pFrom As Point) As Double
        Return DistanceFromXY(pFrom.X, pFrom.Y)
    End Function

    ' Distance from Point to the specified x and y values method.
    <SqlMethod(OnNullCall:=False)> _
    Public Function DistanceFromXY(ByVal ix As Int32, ByVal iy As Int32) _
        As Double
        Return Math.Sqrt(Math.Pow(ix - _x, 2.0) + Math.Pow(iy - _y, 2.0))
    End Function
End Structure

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