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_snprintf_s, _snprintf_s_l, _snwprintf_s, _snwprintf_s_l

Writes formatted data to a string. These are versions of _snprintf, _snprintf_l, _snwprintf, _snwprintf_l with security enhancements as described in Security Features in the CRT.

int _snprintf_s(
   char *buffer,
   size_t sizeOfBuffer,
   size_t count,
   const char *format [,
   argument] ... 
);
int _snprintf_s_l(
   char *buffer,
   size_t sizeOfBuffer,
   size_t count,
   const char *format,
   locale_t locale [,
   argument] ... 
);
int _snwprintf_s(
   wchar_t *buffer,
   size_t sizeOfBuffer,
   size_t count,
   const wchar_t *format [,
   argument] ... 
);
int _snwprintf_s_l(
   wchar_t *buffer,
   size_t sizeOfBuffer,
   size_t count,
   const wchar_t *format,
   locale_t locale [,
   argument] ... 
);
template <size_t size>
int _snprintf_s(
   char (&buffer)[size],
   size_t count,
   const char *format [,
   argument] ... 
); // C++ only
template <size_t size>
int _snwprintf_s(
   wchar_t (&buffer)[size],
   size_t count,
   const wchar_t *format [,
   argument] ... 
); // C++ only
buffer

Storage location for the output.

sizeOfBuffer

The size of the storage location for output. Size in bytes for _snprintf_s or size in words for _snwprintf_s.

Count

Maximum number of characters to store, or _TRUNCATE.

format

Format-control string.

argument

Optional arguments.

locale

The locale to use.

_snprintf_s returns the number of characters stored in buffer, not counting the terminating null character. _snwprintf_s returns the number of wide characters stored in buffer, not counting the terminating null wide character.

If the storage required to store the data and a terminating null exceeds sizeOfBuffer, the invalid parameter handler is invoked, as described in Parameter Validation. If execution continues after the invalid parameter handler, these functions set buffer to an empty string, set errno to ERANGE, and return -1.

If buffer or format is a NULL pointer, or if count is less than or equal to zero, the invalid parameter handler is invoked. If execution is allowed to continue, these functions set errno to EINVAL and return -1.

For information about these and other error codes, see _doserrno, errno, _sys_errlist, and _sys_nerr.

The _snprintf_s function formats and stores count or fewer characters in buffer and appends a terminating null. Each argument (if any) is converted and output according to the corresponding format specification in format. The formatting is consistent with the printf family of functions; see Format Specification Fields: printf and wprintf Functions. If copying occurs between strings that overlap, the behavior is undefined.

If count is _TRUNCATE, then _snprintf_s writes as much of the string as will fit in buffer while leaving room for a terminating null. If the entire string (with terminating null) fits in buffer, then _snprintf_s returns the number of characters written (not including the terminating null); otherwise, _snprintf_s returns -1 to indicate that truncation occurred.

Security noteSecurity Note

Ensure that format is not a user-defined string.

_snwprintf_s is a wide-character version of _snprintf_s; the pointer arguments to _snwprintf_s are wide-character strings. Detection of encoding errors in _snwprintf_s might differ from that in _snprintf_s. _snwprintf_s, like swprintf_s, writes output to a string rather than to a destination of type FILE.

The versions of these functions with the _l suffix are identical except that they use the locale parameter passed in instead of the current thread locale.

In C++, using these functions is simplified by template overloads; the overloads can infer buffer length automatically (eliminating the need to specify a size argument) and they can automatically replace older, non-secure functions with their newer, secure counterparts. For more information, see Secure Template Overloads.

Generic-Text Routine Mappings

Tchar.h routine

_UNICODE and _MBCS not defined

_MBCS defined

_UNICODE defined

_sntprintf_s

_snprintf_s

_snprintf_s

_snwprintf_s

_sntprintf_s_l

_snprintf_s_l

_snprintf_s_l

_snwprintf_s_l

Routine

Required header

_snprintf_s, _snprintf_s_l

<stdio.h>

_snwprintf_s, _snwprintf_s_l

<stdio.h> or <wchar.h>

For more compatibility information, see Compatibility in the Introduction.

// crt_snprintf_s.cpp
// compile with: /MTd

// These #defines enable secure template overloads
// (see last part of Examples() below)
#define _CRT_SECURE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_NAMES 1 
#define _CRT_SECURE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_NAMES_COUNT 1

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <crtdbg.h>  // For _CrtSetReportMode
#include <errno.h>

// This example uses a 10-byte destination buffer.

int snprintf_s_tester( const char * fmt, int x, int count )
{
   char dest[10];

   printf( "\n" );

   if ( count == _TRUNCATE )
      printf( "%d-byte buffer; truncation semantics\n",
               _countof(dest) );
   else
      printf( "count = %d; %d-byte buffer\n",
               count, _countof(dest) );

   int ret = _snprintf_s( dest, _countof(dest), count, fmt, x );

   printf( "    new contents of dest: '%s'\n", dest );

   return ret;
}


void Examples()
{
   // formatted output string is 9 characters long: "<<<123>>>"
   snprintf_s_tester( "<<<%d>>>", 121, 8 );
   snprintf_s_tester( "<<<%d>>>", 121, 9 );
   snprintf_s_tester( "<<<%d>>>", 121, 10 );

   printf( "\nDestination buffer too small:\n" );

   snprintf_s_tester( "<<<%d>>>", 1221, 10 );

   printf( "\nTruncation examples:\n" );

   int ret = snprintf_s_tester( "<<<%d>>>", 1221, _TRUNCATE );
   printf( "    truncation %s occur\n", ret == -1 ? "did"
                                                  : "did not" );

   ret = snprintf_s_tester( "<<<%d>>>", 121, _TRUNCATE );
   printf( "    truncation %s occur\n", ret == -1 ? "did"
                                                  : "did not" );
   printf( "\nSecure template overload example:\n" );

   char dest[10];
   _snprintf( dest, 10, "<<<%d>>>", 12321 );
   // With secure template overloads enabled (see #defines
   // at top of file), the preceding line is replaced by
   //    _snprintf_s( dest, _countof(dest), 10, "<<<%d>>>", 12345 );
   // Instead of causing a buffer overrun, _snprintf_s invokes
   // the invalid parameter handler.
   // If secure template overloads were disabled, _snprintf would
   // write 10 characters and overrun the dest buffer.
   printf( "    new contents of dest: '%s'\n", dest );
}

void myInvalidParameterHandler(
   const wchar_t* expression,
   const wchar_t* function, 
   const wchar_t* file, 
   unsigned int line, 
   uintptr_t pReserved)
{
   wprintf(L"Invalid parameter handler invoked: %s\n", expression);
}

int main( void )
{
   _invalid_parameter_handler oldHandler, newHandler;

   newHandler = myInvalidParameterHandler;
   oldHandler = _set_invalid_parameter_handler(newHandler);
   // Disable the message box for assertions.
   _CrtSetReportMode(_CRT_ASSERT, 0);

   Examples();
}
count = 8; 10-byte buffer
    new contents of dest: '<<<121>>'

count = 9; 10-byte buffer
    new contents of dest: '<<<121>>>'

count = 10; 10-byte buffer
    new contents of dest: '<<<121>>>'

Destination buffer too small:

count = 10; 10-byte buffer
Invalid parameter handler invoked: ("Buffer too small", 0)
    new contents of dest: ''

Truncation examples:

10-byte buffer; truncation semantics
    new contents of dest: '<<<1221>>'
    truncation did occur

10-byte buffer; truncation semantics
    new contents of dest: '<<<121>>>'
    truncation did not occur

Secure template overload example:
Invalid parameter handler invoked: ("Buffer too small", 0)
    new contents of dest: ''

Not applicable. To call the standard C function, use PInvoke. For more information, see Platform Invoke Examples.

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