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Compiler Warning (level 1) C4291

Error Message

'declaration' : no matching operator delete found; memory will not be freed if initialization throws an exception

A placement new is used for which there is no placement delete.

When memory is allocated for an object with operator new, the object's constructor is called. If the constructor throws an exception, any memory that was allocated for the object should be deallocated. This cannot take place unless an operator delete function exists that matches the operator new.

If you use the operator new without any extra arguments and compile with /GX, /EHs, or /EHa options to enable exception handling, the compiler will generate code to call operator delete if the constructor throws an exception.

If you use the placement form of the new operator (the form with arguments in addition to the size of the allocation) and the object's constructor throws an exception, the compiler will still generate code to call operator delete; but it will only do so if a placement form of operator delete exists matching the placement form of the operator new that allocated the memory. For example:

// C4291.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc /W1
#include <malloc.h>

class CList
{
public:
   CList(int)
   {
      throw "Fail!";
   }
};

void* operator new(size_t size, char* pszFilename, int nLine)
{
   return malloc(size);
}

int main(void)
{
   try
   {
      // This will call ::operator new(unsigned int) to allocate heap
      // memory. Heap memory pointed to by pList1 will automatically be
      // deallocated by a call to ::operator delete(void*) when
      // CList::CList(int) throws an exception.
      CList* pList1 = new CList(10);
   }
   catch (...)
   {
   }

   try
   {
      // This will call the overloaded ::operator new(size_t, char*, int)
      // to allocate heap memory. When CList::CList(int) throws an
      // exception, ::operator delete(void*, char*, int) should be called
      // to deallocate the memory pointed to by pList2. Since
      // ::operator delete(void*, char*, int) has not been implemented,
      // memory will be leaked when the deallocation cannot occur.
      CList* pList2 = new(__FILE__, __LINE__) CList(20);   // C4291
   }
   catch (...)
   {
   }
}

The above example generates warning C4291 because no placement form of operator delete has been defined that matches the placement form of operator new. To solve the problem, insert the following code above main. Notice that all of the overloaded operator delete function parameters match those of the overloaded operator new, except for the first parameter.

void operator delete(void* pMem, char* pszFilename, int nLine)
{
   free(pMem);
}
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