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_fsopen, _wfsopen

Opens a stream with file sharing.

FILE *_fsopen( 
   const char *filename,
   const char *mode,
   int shflag 
);
FILE *_wfsopen( 
   const wchar_t *filename,
   const wchar_t *mode,
   int shflag 
);

filename

Name of the file to open.

mode

Type of access permitted.

shflag

Type of sharing allowed.

Each of these functions returns a pointer to the stream. A null pointer value indicates an error. If filename or mode is NULL or an empty string, these functions invoke the invalid parameter handler, as described in Parameter Validation. If execution is allowed to continue, these functions return NULL and set errno to EINVAL.

For more information about these and other error codes, see _doserrno, errno, _sys_errlist, and _sys_nerr.

The _fsopen function opens the file specified by filename as a stream and prepares the file for subsequent shared reading or writing, as defined by the mode and shflag arguments. _wfsopen is a wide-character version of _fsopen; the filename and mode arguments to _wfsopen are wide-character strings. _wfsopen and _fsopen behave identically otherwise.

The character string mode specifies the type of access requested for the file, as shown in the following table.

Term

Definition

"r"

Opens for reading. If the file does not exist or cannot be found, the _fsopen call fails.

"w"

Opens an empty file for writing. If the given file exists, its contents are destroyed.

"a"

Opens for writing at the end of the file (appending); creates the file first if it does not exist.

"r+"

Opens for both reading and writing. (The file must exist.)

"w+"

Opens an empty file for both reading and writing. If the given file exists, its contents are destroyed.

"a+"

Opens for reading and appending; creates the file first if it does not exist.

Use the "w" and "w+" types with care, as they can destroy existing files.

When a file is opened with the "a" or "a+" access type, all write operations occur at the end of the file. The file pointer can be repositioned using fseek or rewind, but it is always moved back to the end of the file before any write operation is carried out. Thus, existing data cannot be overwritten. When the "r+", "w+", or "a+" access type is specified, both reading and writing are allowed (the file is said to be open for update). However, when switching between reading and writing, there must be an intervening fsetpos, fseek, or rewind operation. The current position can be specified for the fsetpos or fseek operation, if desired. In addition to the above values, one of the following characters can be included in mode to specify the translation mode for new lines.

Term

Definition

t

Opens a file in text (translated) mode. In this mode, carriage return–line feed (CR-LF) combinations are translated into single line feeds (LF) on input and LF characters are translated to CR-LF combinations on output. Also, CTRL+Z is interpreted as an end-of-file character on input. In files opened for reading or reading/writing, _fsopen checks for a CTRL+Z at the end of the file and removes it, if possible. This is done because using fseek and ftell to move within a file that ends with a CTRL+Z might cause fseek to behave improperly near the end of the file.

b

Opens a file in binary (untranslated) mode; the above translations are suppressed.

If t or b is not given in mode, the translation mode is defined by the default-mode variable _fmode. If t or b is prefixed to the argument, the function fails and returns NULL. For a discussion of text and binary modes, see Text and Binary Mode File I/O.

The argument shflag is a constant expression consisting of one of the following manifest constants, defined in Share.h.

Term

Definition

_SH_COMPAT

Sets Compatibility mode for 16-bit applications.

_SH_DENYNO

Permits read and write access.

_SH_DENYRD

Denies read access to the file.

_SH_DENYRW

Denies read and write access to the file.

_SH_DENYWR

Denies write access to the file.

Generic-Text Routine Mappings

Tchar.h routine

_UNICODE and _MBCS not defined

_MBCS defined

_UNICODE defined

_tfsopen

_fsopen

_fsopen

_wfsopen

Function

Required header

Optional headers

_fsopen

<stdio.h>

<share.h>

For manifest constant for shflag parameter.

_wfsopen

<stdio.h> or <wchar.h>

<share.h>

For manifest constant for shflag parameter.

// crt_fsopen.c

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <share.h>

int main( void )
{
   FILE *stream;

   // Open output file for writing. Using _fsopen allows us to
   // ensure that no one else writes to the file while we are
   // writing to it.
    //
   if( (stream = _fsopen( "outfile", "wt", _SH_DENYWR )) != NULL )
   {
      fprintf( stream, "No one else in the network can write "
                       "to this file until we are done.\n" );
      fclose( stream );
   }
   // Now others can write to the file while we read it.
   system( "type outfile" );
}
No one else in the network can write to this file until we are done.

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