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Operator Precedence and Associativity

The C++ language includes all C operators and adds several new operators. Operators specify an evaluation to be performed on one of the following:

  • One operand (unary operator)

  • Two operands (binary operator)

  • Three operands (ternary operator)

Operators follow a strict precedence, which defines the evaluation order of expressions containing these operators. Operators associate with either the expression on their left or the expression on their right; this is called "associativity." The following table shows the precedence and associativity of C++ operators (from highest to lowest precedence). Operators in the same segment of the table have equal precedence and are evaluated in the given order in an expression unless explicitly forced by parentheses.

C++ Operator Precedence and Associativity
Operator Name or Meaning Associativity

::

Scope resolution

None

.

–>

[ ]

( )

++

––

typeid( )

const_cast

dynamic_cast

reinterpret_cast

static_cast

Member selection (object)

Member selection (pointer)

Array subscript

Function call member initialization

Postfix increment

Postfix decrement

type name

Type cast (conversion)

Type cast (conversion)

Type cast (conversion)

Type cast (conversion)

Left to right

Left to right

Left to right

Left to right

Left to right

Left to right

Left to right

Left to right

Left to right

Left to right

Left to right

sizeof

++

––

~

!

+

&

*

new

delete

()

Size of object or type

Prefix increment

Prefix decrement

One's complement

Logical not

Unary minus

Unary plus

Address-of

Indirection

Create object

Destroy object

Cast

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

.*

–>*

Pointer-to-member (objects)

Pointer-to-member (pointers)

Left to right

Left to right

*

/

%

Multiplication

Division

Modulus

Left to right

Left to right

Left to right

+

Addition

Subtraction

Left to right

Left to right

<<

>>

Left shift

Right shift

Left to right

Left to right

<

>

<=

>=

Less than

Greater than

Less than or equal to

Greater than or equal to

Left to right

Left to right

Left to right

Left to right

==

!=

Equality

Inequality

Left to right

Left to right

&

Bitwise AND

Left to right

^

Bitwise exclusive OR

Left to right

|

Bitwise inclusive OR

Left to right

&&

Logical AND

Left to right

||

Logical OR

Left to right

e1?e2:e3

Conditional

Right to left

=

*=

/=

%=

+=

–=

<<=

>>=

&=

|=

^=

Assignment

Multiplication assignment

Division assignment

Modulus assignment

Addition assignment

Subtraction assignment

Left-shift assignment

Right-shift assignment

Bitwise AND assignment

Bitwise inclusive OR assignment

Bitwise exclusive OR assignment

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

Right to left

throw expr

throw expression

Right to left

,

Comma

Left to right

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