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Constructor Functions (XQuery)

From a specified input, the constructor functions create instances of any of the XSD built-in or user-defined atomic types.



            TYP($atomicvalue as xdt:anyAtomicType?
            
            ) as TYP?
        

$strval

String that will be converted.

TYP

Any built-in XSD type.

Constructors are supported for base and derived atomic XSD types. However, the subtypes of xs:duration, which includes xdt:yearMonthDuration and xdt:dayTimeDuration, and xs:QName, xs:NMTOKEN, and xs:NOTATION are not supported. User-defined atomic types that are available in the associated schema collections are also available, provided they are directly or indirectly derived from the following types.

Supported Base Types

These are the supported base types:

  • xs:string
  • xs:boolean
  • xs:decimal
  • xs:float
  • xs:double
  • xs:duration
  • xs:dateTime
  • xs:time
  • xs:date
  • xs:gYearMonth
  • xs:gYear
  • xs:gMonthDay
  • xs:gDay
  • xs:gMonth
  • xs:hexBinary
  • xs:base64Binary
  • xs:anyURI
Supported Derived Types

These are the supported derived types:

  • xs:normalizedString
  • xs:token
  • xs:language
  • xs:Name
  • xs:NCName
  • xs:ID
  • xs:IDREF
  • xs:ENTITY
  • xs:integer
  • xs:nonPositiveInteger
  • xs:negativeInteger
  • xs:long
  • xs:int
  • xs:short
  • xs:byte
  • xs:nonNegativeInteger
  • xs:unsignedLong
  • xs:unsignedInt
  • xs:unsignedShort
  • xs:unsignedByte
  • xs:positiveInteger

SQL Server also supports constant folding for construction function invocations in the following ways:

  • If the argument is a string literal, the expression will be evaluated during compilation. When the value does not satisfy the type constraints, a static error is raised.
  • If the argument is a literal of another type, the expression will be evaluated during compilation. When the value does not satisfy the type constraints, the empty sequence is returned.

This topic provides XQuery examples against XML instances that are stored in various xml type columns in the AdventureWorks database. For an overview of each of these columns, see xml Data Type Representation in the AdventureWorks Database.

A. Using the dateTime() XQuery function to retrieve older product descriptions

In this example, a sample XML document is first assigned to an xml type variable. This document contains three sample <ProductDescription> elements, with each one that contain a <DateCreated> child element.

The variable is then queried to retrieve only those product descriptions that were created before a specific date. For purposes of comparison, the query uses the xs:dateTime() constructor function to type the dates.

declare @x xml
set @x = '<root>
<ProductDescription ProductID="1" >
  <DateCreated DateValue="2000-01-01T00:00:00Z" />
  <Summary>Some Summary description</Summary>
</ProductDescription>
<ProductDescription  ProductID="2" >
  <DateCreated DateValue="2001-01-01T00:00:00Z" />
  <Summary>Some Summary description</Summary>
</ProductDescription>
<ProductDescription ProductID="3" >
  <DateCreated DateValue="2002-01-01T00:00:00Z" />
  <Summary>Some Summary description</Summary>
</ProductDescription>
</root>'

select @x.query('
     for $PD in  /root/ProductDescription
     where xs:dateTime(data( ($PD/DateCreated/@DateValue)[1] )) < xs:dateTime("2001-01-01T00:00:00Z")
     return
        element Product
       { 
        ( attribute ProductID { data($PD/@ProductID ) },
        attribute DateCreated { data( ($PD/DateCreated/@DateValue)[1] ) } )
        }
 ')

Note the following from the previous query:

  • The FOR ... WHERE loop structure is used to retrieve the <ProductDescription> element satisfying the condition specified in the WHERE clause.
  • The dateTime() constructor function is used to construct dateTime type values so they can be compared appropriately.
  • The query then constructs the resulting XML. Because you are constructing a sequence of attributes, commas and parentheses are used in the XML construction.

This is the result:

<Product 
   ProductID="1" 
   DateCreated="2000-01-01T00:00:00Z"/>

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