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3 A


A1: A reference style in which each column (2) is identified sequentially from left-to-right with a letter or series of letters in alphabetical order. Column headings are ordered A-Z, then AA-AZ, BA-BZ... ZA-ZZ, AAA-AAZ, and so forth. Each row is numbered sequentially from the top down.

absolute path: A string that identifies the location of a file and begins with a drive identifier and root directory or network share and ends with the complete file name. Examples are C:\Documents\Work\example.txt and \\netshare\Documents\Work\example.txt.

absolute reference: A reference to a fixed location on a sheet (1). An absolute reference always refers to the same range, even if the formula that contains it is moved or copied to a new location.

absolute space: An area of a drawing that occupies an entire document or page. The value for absolute space is typically expressed in English Metric Units (EMUs), but it can be defined by the host application.

absolute URI: An absolute Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), as described in [RFC3986].

absolute URL: A subset of absolute URIs that, in addition to identifying a resource, provides a means of locating a resource by describing its primary access mechanism, as described in [RFC3986].

abstract object reference (AOR): A representation of a Server object that can be passed between a protocol client and a protocol server. The information contained within it allows a client proxy to call remote methods on a Server object.

accelerator key: Any combination of keys that are pressed simultaneously to run a command.

access model: A protocol that specifies how communication is handled between different features in a server system with respect to how user requests for resources are authorized.

access URL: An internal Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that is used by a crawler to identify and gain access to an item.

AccessChecker: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to retrieve the permissions that the calling security principal (2) has for each of a collection of EntityInstances identified by the specified EntityInstanceIds.

account: A collection of data and settings for a SharePoint Workspace or Groove identity that represents a user. This includes shared spaces, messages, and preferences that are associated with a user’s identity. An account can reside on one or more devices.

account configuration code: A unique code that is generated by a management server. It is used to bind an identity to a member of a management server.

account URL: A unique identifier for an account, as described in [RFC3986].

action: (1) The smallest unit of work in a workflow system. An action can contain one or more tasks that define work that actors need to do. Actions are deployed and registered in the workflow system to be activated by protocol client users.

(2) A unit of work that can be performed by a workflow and is typically defined in a workflow markup file.

(3) A discrete operation that is executed on an incoming Message object when all conditions in the same rule (4) are TRUE. A rule contains one or more actions.

Action: A type of MetadataObject that represents a URL that triggers the display or manipulation of data related to an Entity or EntityInstance. Actions are contained by an Entity. Actions contain ActionParameters.

action instance: The runtime instance of a specific action (1). Action instances are building blocks for an activity flow. Several action instances can be chained together to form an activity flow, and multiple action instances of the same action can exist in a single activity flow.

ActionParameter: A type of MetadataObject that defines how to parameterize the URL of an Action with specific data about an EntityInstance. ActionParameters are contained by Actions.

activation: An operation that creates a new action instance.

active cell: The cell that is currently selected in a worksheet.

Active Directory account creation mode: A type of account creation mode that retrieves and uses user accounts in a specific AD DS organizational unit.

Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS): A Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) directory service that provides flexible support for directory-enabled applications, without the restrictions of Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS).

Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI): A directory service model and a set of Component Object Model (COM) interfaces. ADSI enables Windows applications and AD DS clients to gain access to several network directory services, including AD DS.

active sheet: The sheet that is currently selected.

ActiveX control: A reusable software control, such as a check box or button, that uses ActiveX technology and provides options to users or runs macros or scripts that automate a task. See also ActiveX object.

ActiveX control library: A collection of controls that incorporate ActiveX technology and can be called by a VBA project.

ActiveX Data Objects (ADO): A data access interface that connects to, retrieves, manipulates, and updates data in Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) database-compliant data sources.

ActiveX object: An object that is supplied by a component that supports automation.

activity: (1) An object that stores information about either an action (1) or an activity model.

(2) A type of event, such as "In a meeting," that provides information about the availability and status of a presentity.

activity application: An application that aggregates data, such as social data, from one or more sources and organizes that data into activity feeds.

activity event: A specific record in an activity feed. It indicates what change was made, when the change was made, and who made the change.

activity flow: A running instance of a workflow that consists of a sequence of action instances and activity model instances. Action instances and activity model instances can be sequenced in any order to create a single activity flow.

activity model: A predefined sequence of actions (1).

activity template: An XML structure that is associated with a specific activity type. It defines the structure and format for representing an activity event in each of the languages that are supported by the protocol server.

activity type: A type of activity event, such as changes to a colleague's profile or updates to the status of a colleague. An activity type is associated with a specific activity template and is generated by a specific activity application.

ActivityTrackingFilter: A FilterDescriptor type that is used when querying a line-of-business (LOB) system. Its value specifies a GUID for the current operation.

actor: A person or process that starts or participates in an activity flow. An actor can be an initiator or a target.

adaptive crawl: A type of crawl process that automatically identifies documents to be crawled more frequently than other documents.

adaptive menu: A type of menu that displays the most recently used commands at the top of that menu.

add-in: Supplemental functionality that is provided by an external application or macro to extend the capabilities of an application.

add-in function: A worksheet function that is provided by an add-in, instead of being built-in.

address book: A collection of Address Book objects, each of which are contained in any number of address lists.

address book contact: A user, contact (2), or group object that is obtained from AD DS, including a subset of the AD DS attributes that are associated with the object, and is stored in an address book file.

address book file: A file that contains a set of address book contact records.

Address Book object: An entity in an address book that contains a set of attributes (1), each attribute with a set of associated values.

Address Book Server (ABS): A component that produces address book files on a daily basis.

address list: A collection of distinct Address Book objects.

address-of-record: A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)URI that specifies a domain with a location service that can map the URI to another URI for a user, as described in [RFC3261].

adjacent cell: A cell that is in the same row as and adjoins the current cell in a worksheet.

administration component: A search component that is used to perform administrative tasks, such as activating a crawl topology and managing content sources, for a search system. There is only one administration component for each search service application.

ADO: See ActiveX Data Objects (ADO).

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES): A block cipher, as described in [FIPS197]. It supersedes the Data Encryption Standard (DES) and is used in symmetric-key cryptography. Also referred to as the Rijndael symmetric encryption algorithm.

AES Counter Mode: A type of counter-mode encryption that generates encryption key streams by using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cipher and successive integers.

after event: An event whose handler runs only after the action that raised the event is complete. Unlike a before event, an after event handler cannot cancel the action that caused the event. See also before event.

agent: See endpoint (5).

aggregated data set: A set of data that contains the complete results of a query refinement process by a search service application.

aggregation: (1) A mechanism for reusing objects. The outer object exposes interfaces from one or more inner objects as if they were implemented on the outer object itself.

(2) An operation in which multiple instances of one or more dependent categories (4), which are typically published by different Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) clients of the same user, are processed to produce an instance of a category. After this category instance is created, it can be published to multiple containers and notified to subscribers in the same way as any other category.

aggregation function: A function, such as sum or average, that appears in the total row of a table and is used to summarize data.

aggregation specification: A data structure that specifies which aggregation functions to use when generating an aggregated data set.

aggregator: A framework for performing query-time aggregation of statistical data that relates to the set of search results for that query.

alert: (1) An Internet message that is sent to subscribers automatically to notify them when user-defined criteria are met. Alerts are generated automatically when items such as documents, webpages, list items, sites, or other resources on a server are changed.

(2) A message that is passed to a protocol client to notify it when specific criteria are met.

alert subscription: A request to receive an Internet message automatically when user-defined criteria are met. Such messages are generated automatically when items such as documents, webpages, list items, sites, or other resources on a server are changed.

alert template: An XML-based file that contains predefined formatting, including layout and text, for an alert (1).

alias: An alternate name that can be used to reference an object or element.

ALL: See OLAP All member.

All Site Members: A collection of tracked users for a site, including users who are assigned permissions explicitly or have visited the site.

All Users: All of the users who can access a site collection, regardless of whether they are authenticated.

alternate account: An additional user account that is in a different domain but within the same forest as the primary account.

alternate startup directory: A secondary location that stores files to be opened by an application when the application starts.

always notify alert: An alert (1) notification that is sent to a user at the requested time, regardless of whether the data is changed.

Analysis Services: The abbreviated name for Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services, which is used to create and maintain multidimensional data that is sent to client applications in response to queries. Also referred to as Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) server.

ancestor: (1) A PivotTable member that is above the current PivotTable member in a hierarchy.

(2) In a tree structure, an element from which other elements inherit attributes

anchor: A set of qualifiers and quantifiers that specifies the location of an element or object within a document. These values are typically relative to another element or known location in the document, such as the edge of a page or margin.

anchor content source: A content source that is used to import the anchor text from links between items into the full-text index catalog.

anchor crawl: A process in which anchor text from links between items is added to a full-text index catalog.

anchor scope index key: An index key that contains an encoded document identifier. It is used in conjunction with a scope index record that stores links from the item that is referenced by the document identifier.

anchor text: The text that is included with a hyperlink to describe the target content of a hyperlink.

animation: A record of synthetic, successive still images that produce an illusion of movement when played back.

answer: A message that is sent in response to an offer that is received from an offerer.

app: (1) See web application (1).

(2) See app for Office.

(3) A set of instructions that a computer uses to perform a specific task, such as word processing, accounting, or data management.

(4) See app for SharePoint.

app for Office: A cloud-enabled app that integrates rich, scenario-focused content and services into an Office application or equivalent protocol client.

app for SharePoint: A cloud-enabled software module that uses HTML, JavaScript, or other industry-standard web technologies, in addition to possible server components, to integrate rich, scenario-focused content and services into SharePoint.

app instance: An instantiation of an app on a specific site.

app package: An implementation-specific file that specifies an app.

app principal: Designates an authenticated entity that is not a user.

app product identifier: A unique designation that is shared by all versions of an app.

app site domain identifier: A unique specifier containing six hexadecimal number values that is used to determine a particular host header for a subsite.

app web domain identifier: A unique specifier containing eight hexadecimal number values that is used to determine a particular host header for a subsite.

application identifier: (1) A unique integer that identifies a protocol client application.

(2) A string that is used to look up information in a single sign-on (SSO) database.

application manifest: An XML file that describes the contents and requirements for a deployment package (2).

application server: A computer that provides infrastructure and services for applications that are hosted on a server farm.

application session: The period of time when an application is running. When an application starts, the session starts. When an application quits, the session ends.

Application Sharing Multipoint Control Unit (ASMCU): A Multipoint Control Unit (MCU) that supports application sharing conferencing.

arity: An integer that represents the number of parameters that are associated with an operator. For example, the arity of a plus sign (+) is "2" because the operation has two parameters.

array formula: A formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values, and then returns either a single result or multiple results. Array formulas are enclosed in braces ({}) and are entered by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.

ascending order: A sort order in which text strings are arranged in alphabetical order, numerical values are arranged from smallest to largest, and dates and times are arranged from oldest to newest.

ASP.NET: A set of technologies in the Microsoft .NET Framework for building, deploying, and running web applications, distributed applications, and web services.

ASP.NET control: A server-side component that encapsulates user interface and related functionality. An ASP.NET server control derives directly or indirectly from the System.Web.UI.Control class. The superset of ASP.NET server controls includes web server controls, HTML server controls, and ASP.NET mobile controls.

assembly: A collection of one or more files that is versioned and deployed as a unit. An assembly is the primary building block of a .NET Framework application. All managed types and resources are contained within an assembly and are marked either as accessible only within the assembly or as accessible from code in other assemblies. Assemblies also play a key role in security. The code access security system uses information about an assembly to determine the set of permissions that is granted to code in the assembly.

assembly name: The name of a collection of one or more files that is versioned and deployed as a unit. See also assembly.

associated query: An additional search query that is associated with an item. It is derived from clickthrough logs and represents a query that resulted in a click to that item from a search result.

Association: A MethodInstance that enables the traversal and manipulation of a data model relationship between a set of source Entities and a single destination Entity. An Association can retrieve, associate, and disassociate EntityInstances of a destination Entity if given EntityInstances of other source Entities.

AssociationGroup: A MetadataObject that provides a logical grouping of AssociationReferences. All of the Associations that are identified by AssociationReferences in the group operate on a single physical mapping of source EntityInstances to destination EntityInstances in a line-of-business (LOB) system. All AssociationReferences in the group have the same AssociationReference sources and destinations, and collectively define the source and destination Entities of the AssociationGroup.

AssociationNavigator: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to retrieve destination EntityInstances that are associated with a single specified EntityInstance for each of the sources of the specified Association.

AssociationReference: An entry in an AssociationGroup that refers to an Association. The sources of the AssociationReference are the sources of the referenced Association, and the destination of the AssociationReference is the destination of the referenced Association. The opposite is true if the AssociationReference is defined to be a reverse reference, for Associations with one source Entity.

Associator: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to associate the specified, destination EntityInstance with a single specified EntityInstance for each of the sources of the specified Association.

Asynchronous JavaScript + XML (AJAX): A web programming model that incorporates a set of web technologies including Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML), cascading style sheets (CSS), Document Object Model (DOM), XML, Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT), XMLHTTPRequest (XHR), and JavaScript. AJAX is designed to make user interaction with the web more responsive.

atom: A unit of information that cannot be divided into smaller parts, and is accepted or rejected in its entirety. See also Atom Publishing Protocol (AtomPub).

atom feed: An XML structure that contains metadata about content, such as the language version and the date when the content was last modified, and is sent to subscribers by using the Atom Publishing Protocol (AtomPub), as described in [RFC4287].

Atom Publishing Protocol (AtomPub): An application-level protocol for publishing and editing web resources, as described in [RFC5023].

attachment: An external file that is included with an Internet message or associated with an item in a SharePoint list.

attachment identifier: A GUID that identifies a file that is associated with an item in a list (1).

Attachment object: A set of properties that represents a file, Message object, or structured storage that is attached to a Message object and is visible through the attachments table for a Message object.

attachments table: A Table object whose rows represent the Attachment objects that are attached to a Message object.

attribute hierarchy: A single-level OLAP hierarchy that uses only an attribute (1) or a column (1) from a source, back-end relational database as its hierarchy. An attribute hierarchy typically has the same name as the attribute and is always associated with the attribute on which it is based.

attribute vector: A representation of an indexed term in an index data structure. It is used to aggregate refinements of search queries and to sort query results.

audience: A named group of users that is used for targeting content.

audience compilation: The process of evaluating a set of user profile entities with an audience rule to determine which user profile entities are members of an audience.

audience identifier: A GUID or string that is used to identify an audience.

audience rule: A set of logical conditions that determine whether a user profile can be a member of an audience.

Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF): A sound file format that was originally used on Macintosh and Silicon Graphics (SGI) computers. AIFF stores waveform files in an 8-bit monaural format. See also waveform (WAV).

Audio Video Interleaved (AVI): A multimedia file format for sound and video that uses the Microsoft Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF).

audio video profile (AVP): A Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) profile that is used specifically with audio and video, as described in [RFC3551]. It provides interpretations of generic fields that are suitable for audio and video media sessions.

Audio/Video Edge Server (A/V Edge Server): A protocol server that implements the Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN) Extensions Protocol, as described in [MS-TURN]. The protocol server provides connectivity to a protocol client that is behind a network entity, if the network entity provides network address translation (NAT).

Audio/Video Multipoint Control Unit (AVMCU): A Multipoint Control Unit (MCU) that supports audio-video (AV) conferencing.

audit entry: Information that is recorded about an operation on an object that is stored on a server.

audit event: An operation that is recorded in a log by an auditing system.

audit log: A collection of data about successful and failed operations on objects for which auditing is enabled on a server.

authenticated user: A built-in security group specified in [MS-WSO] whose members include all users that can be authenticated by a computer.

author: The user who created a list item.

authority hops: The number of site levels to be navigated from a start address to a specific item.

authority level: A floating-point number that designates a specific webpage as more relevant than other webpages. Acceptable values are "0", "1", or "2", where "0" is most relevant.

authority page: A webpage that a site collection administrator designated as more relevant than other webpages. This is typically the URL of the home page for the intranet of an organization. The higher the authority level assigned to a page, the higher the page appears in search results. Also referred to as authoritative page.

authority rank: A rank component that indicates whether an item is an authoritative resource, based on references to the item from other items instead of the content of the item itself. See also quality rank.

AutoFilter: A mechanism that can be used to filter tabular data based on user-defined criteria such as values, strings, and formatting.

AutoFilter item: A value that is used to populate an AutoFilter.

AutoFormat: A built-in set of complementary formatting options that can be applied to ranges of cells and other objects in a document.

automatic calculation mode: A calculation mode in which formulas in a worksheet are recalculated automatically whenever the data changes. See also manual calculation mode.

Automation server: An application that enables its objects, methods, and properties to be controlled by other applications through OLE Automation.

Automation type library: A file or a component within a file that contains OLE Automation standard descriptions of exposed objects, properties, and methods for an application.

automaton: An implementation of a finite-state machine that is used to look up information in a linguistic dictionary.

AutoRecover: A feature that recovers document and application states in the event of a hardware or software failure.

AutoShow: A filter option that enables users to display a specified number of the top- or bottom-most items within a PivotTable field.

available site template: An XML-based collection of predefined or user-defined settings that are stored as a site definition configuration or a site template, and can be used when creating a site.

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